Local Plan Review: Preferred Approach 2016-2035

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(4) Spatial Strategy

(7) Sustainable Development Principles

4.1 The Government encourages local planning authorities to ensure sustainable development is at the forefront when considering planning applications. The National Planning Policy Framework defines sustainable development as "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". The UK Sustainable Development Strategy Securing the Future set out five 'guiding principles' of sustainable development: living within the planet's environmental limits; ensuring a strong, healthy and just society; achieving a sustainable economy; promoting good governance; and using sound science responsibly.

4.2 The National Planning Policy Framework confirms that there is a presumption in favour of sustainable development through the operation of a plan-led planning system with succinct and up-to-date plans providing a positive vision for the future of the area, which addresses needs and provides a platform for local people to shape their surroundings. New development must achieve sustainable development principles and must not adversely affect the character, quality, amenity or safety of the built environment, wherever it occurs.

(11) Policy S1: Presumption in Favour of Sustainable Development

When considering development proposals the Council will take a positive approach that reflects the presumption in favour of sustainable development contained in the National Planning Policy Framework. It will always work proactively with applicants to find solutions which mean that proposals can be approved wherever possible, and to secure development that improves the economic, social and environmental conditions in the area.

Planning applications that accord with the policies in this Local Plan (and, where relevant, with policies in neighbourhood plans) will be approved, unless material considerations indicate otherwise.

Where there are no policies relevant to the application or relevant policies are out of date at the time of making the decision then the Council will grant permission unless material considerations indicate otherwise – taking into account whether:

  1. Any adverse impacts of granting permission would significantly and demonstrably outweigh the benefits, when assessed against the policies in the National Planning Policy Framework taken as a whole; or
  1. Specific policies in that Framework indicate that development should be restricted.


A Sustainable Strategy

4.3 The development strategy seeks to deliver the Local Plan Review's vision and objectives and to meet the wider needs of places and communities across the plan area. The strategy aims to meet identified needs, in a manner compatible with the special environmental qualities of the area and having regard to infrastructure requirements and deliverability. This approach fulfils the requirements for sustainable development as set out in the NPPF.

4.4 The Local Plan Review strategy has been shaped by a range of factors including:

  • The sub-regional planning context, in particular the Local Strategic Statement (LSS2) for West Sussex and Greater Brighton;
  • The overall vision and objectives for the plan area and for the different sub-areas and settlements within it;
  • The pattern of need and demand for housing and employment across the area;
  • Infrastructure capacity and constraints, in particular relating to wastewater treatment, roads and transport;
  • Environmental constraints – avoiding flood risk areas, protecting environmental designations, landscape quality, the historic environment and settlement character;
  • The availability of potential housing sites, their deliverability and phasing;
  • Public consultation and the sustainability appraisal of options and policies.
4.5 It is recognised that growth in both urban and rural areas is required to meet the changing needs of the area's population. Development, particularly affordable housing, the provision of jobs, social and community facilities is required to help sustain, enhance and make the area's city, towns and villages more self-supporting places to live and work. In accommodating such needs the strategy's emphasis is to locate development in areas which are well located to other uses, serviced by a choice of transport modes and accessible to the communities they serve.

4.6 The broad development strategy is set out in Policy S3 and illustrated in the key diagram. This provides the basis for the distribution of development and infrastructure provision. They set the spatial context for the Local Plan Review.

Map 4.1 Key Diagram

output

(4) Settlement Hierarchy

4.7 The Local Plan Review identifies a Settlement Hierarchy across the plan area. It is a useful policy tool for identifying the spatial distribution across the plan area, taking into account the role of each settlement.

4.8 The NPPF encourages housing delivery where it will enhance or maintain the vitality of rural communities. The Local Plan Review focuses and encourages development in locations where people can access services and facilities and where there is a choice of transport modes including walking, cycling and public transport, recognising that in some of the more rural parts of the plan area opportunities for sustainable transport may be more limited but that some development may, nevertheless, help to sustain communities.

4.9 The overall objective of the Settlement Hierarchy is to deliver development that supports the needs of individual communities, enabling them to prosper in the long term. Generally the larger settlements have better provision of day to day facilities and are able to accommodate higher levels of growth without adversely impacting the character of the settlement.

4.10 Each category within the Settlement Hierarchy will contribute towards future growth in the plan area, with the largest levels of growth expected in the Sub Regional Centre, Settlement Hubs and Service Villages and more limited development coming forward in the rural settlements.

4.11 Where new allocations for development are identified in some of the settlements in the hierarchy this is to provide certainty in respect of the location of future growth.

4.12 The Settlement Hierarchy has been defined in relation to the presence of certain services and facilities. The list of services and facilities considered included:

  • Convenience stores;
  • Primary schools;
  • Village halls / community centres;
  • Play areas;
  • Medical facilities, and
  • Public transport.

(63) Policy S2: Settlement Hierarchy

The Settlement Hierarchy sets out a framework for the Council to achieve its vision for the plan area, meet the scale of development required and enhance the quality of the built, natural, historic, social and cultural environments, while sustaining the vitality of communities. The settlement hierarchy is shown on the Key Diagram.

The development requirements for the sub regional centre, settlement hubs and service villages will be delivered through site allocations and through windfall development in accordance with other policies in this Local Plan Review.

Settlement Type

Communities

Sub-Regional Centre

Chichester City

Settlement Hubs

East Wittering / Bracklesham

Selsey

Southbourne

Tangmere

Service Villages

Birdham, Bosham, Boxgrove, Camelsdale / Hammer,

Fishbourne, Hambrook / Nutbourne, Hermitage, Hunston, Kirdford, Loxwood, North Mundham / Runcton, Plaistow / Ifold, Stockbridge, West Wittering, Westbourne, Westhampnett, Wisborough Green.

Rest of the Plan area

Small villages, hamlets, scattered development and countryside

(24) Development Strategy

4.13 The Local Plan Review will focus new development, including housing and employment growth, leisure, cultural and tourist facilities, retail and mixed use developments, at the most sustainable locations. The Settlement Hierarchy has informed the strategy for housing development at Chichester City and the Settlement Hubs based on the circumstances and opportunities relevant to each as detailed below.

4.14 The starting point for housing development at Service Villages is that in principle, they are suitable places to accommodate new housing. However, consideration has been given to other factors in determining whether a settlement is a suitable location for additional housing growth, including infrastructure capacity, the existence of suitable sites and consultation responses.

4.15 Within the rest of the plan area development will be restricted to that which requires a countryside location, meets essential local rural needs or supports rural diversification, in line with other policies in this Plan.

4.16 Sub-regional Centre: Chichester City will continue to develop its role as a sub-regional centre, providing higher and further education and health facilities, and a broad range of employment, retail, entertainment and cultural opportunities, for a wide catchment area extending outside the plan area. Town centre uses will be supported where they promote the vitality and viability of the city centre.

4.17 Settlement Hubs: New development will reinforce the role of the Settlement Hubs (see Policy S2 above) as centres providing a range of dwellings, workplaces, social and community facilities. Retail development of an appropriate scale will be supported to promote the vitality and viability of East Wittering and Selsey village and town centres and enhance provision at Southbourne and Tangmere centres.

4.18 Service Villages: As identified in Policy S2, land for new strategic development will be identified allocated through the Local Plan Review or a neighbourhood plan at a number of service villages where there is an opportunity to provide development based on the strategy of dispersing development across the plan area in conjunction with land being available in suitable locations.

4.19 Parish housing requirements: at some service villages where no strategic housing site is proposed, a housing figure has been identified for a number of parishes. These numbers will be required to be delivered by way of either a neighbourhood plan for the parish, or through a subsequent DPD.

4.20 Rest of the plan area: The local plan aims to continue to protect the countryside, but also recognises thesocial and economic needs of rural communities. As such, new development in thecountryside will be generally limited to the appropriate diversification of traditional ruralindustries; small-scale housing that addresses local needs, replacementdwellings/buildings, schemes that provide renewable energy and proposals that contributetowards creating a more sustainable rural economy. Other policies in this Plan should be taken into consideration.

4.21 Policy S3 sets out the principles for the location of new residential development in the plan area so that strategic issues such as infrastructure needs can be considered at an early stage. As indicated in the settlement hierarchy, Chichester City possesses a wider range of shops, services and employment opportunities than other settlements. Locating a significant proportion of development in or around Chichester City reduces the need to travel to facilities.

(117) Policy S3: Development Strategy

The development strategy identifies the broad approach to providing sustainable development in the plan area. It seeks to disperse development across the plan area:

  • Focus the majority of planned sustainable growth at Chichester and within the east-west corridor,
  • Reinforce the role of Manhood Peninsula as a home to existing communities, tourism and agricultural enterprise,
  • Where opportunities arise support the thriving villages and rural communities in the north of the Plan Area

To help achieve sustainable growth the Council will:

  1. Ensure that new residential development is distributed in line with the settlement hierarchy, with a greater proportion of development in the larger and more sustainable settlements:

Strategic Development Location

Within or adjacent to the sub regional centre of Chichester City

Shopwyke (Policy AL2);

West of Chichester (Policy AL1)

Westhampnett (Policy AL4)

East of Chichester (Policy AL3)

Southern Gateway (Policy AL5)

South-west of Chichester (Policy AL6)

At the following settlement hubs

Southbourne (Policy AL13);

Tangmere (Policy AL14);

Selsey (Policy AL12);

East Wittering (Policy AL8);

At the following Service Villages

Bosham (Policy AL7)

Fishbourne (Policy AL9)

Hambrook / Nutbourne (Policy AL10)

Hunston (Policy AL11)

  1. In addition to the above allocations, non-strategic provision is made for the following forms of development in service villages:
    1. Small scale housing developments consistent with the indicative housing numbers set out in Policy S5;
    2. Local community facilities, including village shops, that meet identified needs within the village, neighbouring villages and surrounding smaller communities, and will help make the settlement more self-sufficient; and
    3. Small scale employment, tourism or leisure proposals.

To ensure that the Council delivers its housing target, the distribution of development may need to be flexibly applied, within the overall context of seeking to ensure that the majority of new housing is developed at Chichester City and settlement hubs where appropriate and consistent with other policies in this plan. Any changes to the distribution will be clearly evidenced and monitored through the Authority's Monitoring Report.

(27) Meeting Housing Needs

4.22 This Plan seeks to make provision for an additional 12,350 dwellings to be delivered during the period 2016-2035 in accordance with the findings of the Chichester Housing and Economic Development Needs Assessment (HEDNA). This reflects the identified objectively assessed housing needs of the plan area, plus an allowance for accommodating unmet need arising from the Chichester District part of the South Downs National Park.

4.23 The Council will continue to work with other local authorities in the West Sussex and Greater Brighton Strategic Planning Board to address the objectively assessed housing need for housing and other development needs arising in this area. As discussed in paragraph 1.25 above, this 'duty to cooperate' includes the commissioning of new evidence to understand the potential longer term development needs, including housing, arising within the area, before considering spatial options for addressing this need taking into account the opportunities available, the potential infrastructure and constraints. These issues are not for the Council to consider in isolation, with the joint strategic planning partnership being the agreed mechanism to address such matters in a timely way.

4.24 To ensure a continuous supply of housing over the plan period, a number of sources of supply have been identified. These include new strategic allocations made in this Plan, retained allocations from the adopted Local Plan 2014-2029, existing commitments, sites to be identified at a parish level through neighbourhood plans (or DPD) and sites not yet identified that are likely to come forward through the development management process in accordance with the policies of this Plan ('windfalls').

(127) Policy S4: Meeting Housing Needs

The housing target for the Plan Area is to provide for at least 12,350 dwellings to be delivered in the period 2016-2035. The broad sources of supply anticipated in this Plan are as follows:

Category

Number of dwellings (minimum)

Housing requirement for the full Plan period (1 April 2016 to 31 March 2035)

12,350

Housing completions (1 April 2016 to 31 March 2017)

439

Housing supply

(1 April 2017 to 31 March 2035)

Known commitments (comprising)

6,444

Outstanding adopted LP allocations without pp

1,950

Outstanding 'made' NP allocations without pp

189

Planning permissions as of 1 April 2017

4305

Proposed Strategic Locations/Allocations

4,400

Parish Housing Requirements

500

Windfall (small site allowance)

695

Total supply for the full Plan period (1 April 2016 to 31 March 2035)

12,478

The broad spatial distribution of this supply of housing across the different plan areas is indicated in the table below:

Sub-Area

Housing provision 2016-2035

East-West Corridor

10,056

Manhood Peninsula

1,933

North of Plan Area

489

Plan Area Total

12,478

(11) Strategic Locations/Allocations

4.25 In order to achieve the levels of housing supply required to meet identified needs, it is necessary to make provision for larger scale development in the plan area. In total the Plan provides for at least 4,400 dwellings to come forward from such sites. Details of the strategic locations and allocations expected to deliver this source of supply are set out in Chapter 6. Note: some large scale strategic development is currently expected to be provided for through neighbourhood plans. The Council will continue to monitor the progress made in preparing neighbourhood plans and will consider whether there may be a need to allocate additional sites within the Local Plan Review prior to submission.

Non-strategic Parish Housing Requirements

4.26 Following a similar approach to the 2015 Local Plan, it is proposed that responsibility for identifying sites suitable for small scale housing is identified at a parish level in order to address the needs of local communities. In accordance with the Local Plan Review settlement hierarchy, it is intended that such new housing should generally be directed primarily towards the larger, more sustainable settlements.

4.27 Indicative housing numbers to be planned for each parish are set out in the policy below.

(203) Policy S5: Parish Housing Requirements 2016 - 2035

Small scale housing sites will be identified to help provide for the needs of local communities in accordance with the parish housing requirements set out below. Suitable sites will be identified either through neighbourhood plans or subsequent development plan document. Please note that a '*' against a parish name indicates that a strategic allocation for development is made elsewhere in this Plan

Parish

Housing Figure

Parish

Housing Figure

Apuldram*

0

Birdham

125

Bosham*

0

Boxgrove

50

Chichester City

50

Chidham and Hambrook*

0

Donnington*

0

Earnley

0

East Wittering*

0

Fishbourne*

0

Funtington

0

Hunston*

0

Itchenor

0

Kirdford

0

Lavant

0

Loxwood

125

Lynchmere

0

North Mundham

50

Oving*

0

Plaistow and Ifold

0

Selsey*

0

Sidlesham

0

Southbourne*

0

Tangmere*

0

West Wittering

25

Westbourne

0

Westhampnett

50

Wisborough Green

25



Total

500

If draft neighbourhood plans making provision for at least the minimum housing numbers of the relevant area have not been submitted for examination within 6 months of the adoption of this Local Plan, the Council will allocate sites for development within a Development Plan Document in order to meet the requirements of this Local Plan.

4.28 Suitable sites and locations for development will be identified meeting the criteria set in Policy S2 and Policy S3 (Settlement Hierarchy and Development Strategy) and other policies in the Plan. It is intended that the identification of sites and phasing of delivery will be determined by local communities through neighbourhood planning in consultation with the Council. In areas where parish councils do not wish to prepare their own neighbourhood plan, the Council will work with the parishes to identify sites in a subsequent Development Plan Document. Housing sites for Chichester City will be allocated through the preparation of the Development Plan Document and may include sites adjoining the Chichester City settlement boundary in neighbouring parishes (including sites separated from the settlement boundary by the A27).

4.29 Some flexibility may be allowed for minor amendments to housing numbers for individual parishes subject to the detailed investigation and assessment of potential sites through neighbourhood plans and in the Site Allocation DPD. Developments of 6 or more dwellings will be counted against the parish housing requirements. Developments of less than 6 dwellings will not count against the parish housing requirements as they are already taken into consideration in an allowance made for future delivery from windfall small sites.

Longer Term Growth Requirements

4.30 Although this Plan considers the development needs of the plan area up to 2035, some initial consideration has been given to the concept of a new settlement to accommodate potential longer term growth needs. This arises from some reservations about whether it will be appropriate in the longer term to continue to rely on existing sources of supply (e.g. urban extensions and urban intensification) indefinitely given the potential for ongoing increased levels of housing needs.

4.31 The planning and delivery of a new settlement is complex and given the significance a new settlement will have for future generations it is important that any such provision is planned carefully. Typically, a new settlement may provide a minimum of 2,000 – 3,000 new dwellings. This scale of development would be consistent with the typical population threshold required to support the key services to be provided, although other factors such as proximity to public transport and the strategic road network would also need to be taken into account. Higher levels of development would, however, enable a wider range of services and facilities to be provided over time as the new settlement was developed and the population grew.

4.32 Given the long lead in time required, and the identification of a ready supply of housing elsewhere within the plan area to accommodate identified needs during the plan period, this Plan is not dependent on the provision of a new settlement.

4.33 However, in order to progress the longer-term identification of a possible site for a new settlement, the following considerations are set out to guide potential discussions leading up to the preparation of a future review of this Plan:

  • sufficient scale to support potential long term development needs arising and support the provision of key infrastructure and community facilities;
  • comprehensively planned in consultation with existing communities and key stakeholders;
  • a sustainable, inclusive and cohesive community promoting self-sufficiency and with high levels of sustainable transport connectivity;
  • inclusion of on-site measures to avoid and mitigate any significant adverse impacts on nearby protected habitats;
  • provision of a mix of uses to meet longer term development needs and contribute towards its distinctive identity; and
  • A layout and form of development that avoids coalescence with existing settlements and does not undermine their separate identity; respects the landscape character and conserves and where possible enhances the character, significance and setting of heritage assets

(8) Affordable Housing

4.34 Meeting the housing needs of the plan area and tackling homelessness are key objectives for the Council. The Council is the Housing Authority for the whole of the district and its Housing Strategy seeks to address the changing demands on Council services, whilst increasing the supply of housing to meet local needs. House prices and rents in the Plan area continue to grow and remain high compared to average household incomes. This means housing is unaffordable to many people in the Plan area.

4.35 Given the high levels of current and potential future need for affordable housing, it is important that opportunities are taken to ensure that new residential development (whether from the proposed strategic sites or unidentified sources) contributes to the supply of affordable homes in the plan area, to meet identified local needs in terms of type and tenure. The Council will use up-to-date information from research and the Housing Register to negotiate the provision of affordable housing in new development. Precise requirements will depend on the development and the site in question.

4.36 Policy S6 takes into account guidance in the PPG, when considering the affordable housing thresholds. The Policy makes reference to areas designated as rural areas, as set out in Section 157 of the Housing Act 1985, as identified on the map in Appendix B.

4.37 Guidance on the financial contributions associated with affordable housing including how to apply vacant building is set out in the Planning Obligations and Affordable Housing SPD and/or the Community Infrastructure Levy as appropriate.

4.38 Policy S6 will apply to both allocated sites and unidentified windfall development. Neighbourhood Plans will need to take account of the provision of affordable housing as part of any development. Developers are encouraged to contact the Council as early as possible to engage in meaningful pre-application advice. This will ensure that the affordable housing requirements are designed into the scheme from the outset.

4.39 Delivery: The Council expects that affordable housing should be provided or managed by Registered Providers (RP), and preferably by one of its development partners or an incorporated Community Led Housing group. However, in exceptional circumstances, the Council may use its discretion to allow other 'Approved Bodies' to deliver affordable housing units. This will, at all times, be strictly in line with the NPPF.

4.40 The Council requires affordable housing to be provided on-site, unless there are exceptional circumstances that mean off-site provision or a financial contribution of broadly equivalent value can be robustly justified and the agreed approach contributes to the objective of creating mixed and balanced communities. Where the proportion of affordable housing results in a requirement for a fraction of a unit, the fraction will be sought as a financial contribution (in the form of a commuted sum), which is equivalent to the proportion of the cost of provision of a typical unit on the development.

4.41 Paragraphs 21 – 23 of the PPG introduce the application of Vacant Building Credit (VBC) with respect to affordable housing contributions. VBC may be applied where it can be demonstrated that qualifying buildings are vacant. Whether a building is genuinely vacant will be determined on a site by site basis. The PPG states that the vacant building credit will not apply when a) the building has been made vacant for the sole purpose of redevelopment, and b) where the building is covered by an extant or recently expired planning permission for the same or substantially the same development. Further information is included in the Planning Obligations and Affordable Housing SPD.

4.42 Where a proposal is unable to meet the requirements for the delivery of affordable housing due to it rendering the proposal financially unviable, developers will be expected to assess options in accordance with the assessment set out in Policy S6.

4.43 In order to prevent social exclusion and to help establish a mixed, balanced and sustainable community within large developments, it is very important that the affordable housing is well integrated and distributed throughout the site; this can be aided through providing a range of affordable tenures. Housing should be tenure blind and the affordable housing should not be externally distinguishable from the market housing.

4.44 The Council will be alert to, and not permit any benefit to be gained from, the artificial or contrived subdivision of a site in order to circumvent the affordable housing threshold identified in Policy S6. If the Council believes there is a reasonable expectation of adjoining land coming forward for housing development, it will take the whole site area into account when calculating the affordable housing requirement.

4.45 Community Land Trusts (CLT) will be promoted by the Council as one mechanism for delivering additional affordable housing[12] and other community development. A CLT is a mechanism for democratic ownership of land by the local community or beneficiaries. Land is taken out of the market and separated from its productive use, so that the impact of land appreciation is removed, thereby enabling long-term affordable and sustainable local development. Planning obligations may include prescriptive restrictions to deliver affordable housing, which require developers to endow a CLT with a proportion of the land for affordable housing and/or other community purposes. In delivering a supply of affordable housing, the Council will consider and promote a range of development options. The CLT mechanism can contribute to maintaining housing affordability, as well as being able to provide community facilities, low cost workspace for local services and once new development had been built, CLTs will be expected to invest any financial profits back into the community.

Further details on the different methods can be found in the Council's Planning Obligations and Affordable Housing SPD.

(37) Policy S6: Affordable Housing

The provision of affordable housing will be required for at least 30% of all new dwellings as set out in the criteria below: .

  1. On all sites of 11 dwellings or more, affordable dwellings should be provided on site. If it can be demonstrated that affordable housing may not be appropriate, development of affordable dwellings on another site may be considered. If this is not achievable, as a last resort and in exceptional circumstances only, the Council will seek a financial contribution to enable provision of affordable homes elsewhere within the plan area;
  1. On sites of 6 to 10 dwellings in areas designated as rural areas as shown in Appendix B, the Council will seek a financial contribution for the provision of affordable dwellings as a commuted sum using the calculation set out in the Council's Planning Obligation and Affordable Housing SPD (or replacement document).
  1. Where the affordable housing calculation results in fractions of homes, the fraction will be sought as a commuted sum, using the calculation set out in the Council's Planning Obligation and Affordable Housing SPD (or replacement document).
  1. A vacant building credit may be applied where it can be demonstrated that qualifying buildings are vacant. Whether a building is genuinely vacant will be determined on a site by site basis.
  1. Where a proposal is unable to meet the requirements for the delivery of affordable housing due to it rendering the proposal financially unviable, developers will be expected to assess options in accordance with the following
    1. Firstly, establish if any public subsidy is available to deliver a policy compliant mix;
    2. Secondly, reduce the proportion of rented affordable tenure homes in favour of intermediate housing that best reflects local need;
    3. Thirdly, reduce the overall percentage of housing provided as affordable units; and
    4. Finally, provide a financial contribution for affordable housing to be delivered off-site.
  1. The Council will expect the requirements of criterion 5 to be demonstrated through an 'open book' process. An independent valuer appointed by the Council, at the developer's cost, will provide an independent viability assessment.

The affordable housing element will be in line with Policy DM2 Housing Mix.

Affordable housing should be indistinguishable from market housing in terms of the location, external appearance, design, standards and build quality and should meet all requirements of the design policies.

Neighbourhood Plans can set out higher requirements for affordable housing provision where local evidence of need and viability supports this.

(1) Meeting Gypsies, Travellers and Travelling Showpeoples' Needs

4.46 Gypsies, Travellers and Travelling Showpeople have specific accommodation needs. There are well-established and largely settled Gypsy and traveller communities with extensive family ties within the plan area.

4.47 TheGovernment's Planning Policy for Traveller Sites (PPTS 2015) requires councils to assess and meet Gypsy, Traveller and Travelling Showpeople's housing needs in the same way as other housing needs, including providing land for sites. PPTS 2015 updated the definition of Traveller for planning purposes to no longer include those who have ceased to travel permanently. The Council is required to identify a five year supply of sites for households that meet the planning definition.

4.48 In partnership with the Coastal West Sussex Authorities and the South Downs National Park Authority (SDNPA), with support from West Sussex County Council, a Coastal West Sussex Authority Gypsy and Traveller and Travelling Showpeople Assessment (GTAA) 2018-2036 was completed. In line with the Plan period 2018-2035, the GTAA has identified a need for Chichester as set out in the table below:

Table 4.1 Additional Pitch Provision required in the Plan Area to accommodate Gypsies and Travellers


2018-2023

2023-2028

2028-2033

2033-2035

Households who meet the planning definition

66

10

11

4

Households whose status is unknown but may meet the definition

11

6

7

2

Table 4.2 Additional Plot Provision required in the Plan Area to accommodate Travelling Showpeople

2018-2023

2023-2028

2028-2033

2033-2035

18

4

4

2

4.49 As there is a significant variation in the number of households who may fall under the definition (up to 26 over the plan period) it is not appropriate or practicable to allocate sites for these additional figures. Applications submitted for sites not identified in the forthcoming DPD will be considered against the criteria in Policy S7 below and those found within Policy DM5 to ensure the accommodation is located in a suitable location.

4.50 In applying the policy, the extent to which a traditional lifestyle and a settled base can contribute to sustainable development will be considered. In addition, sites for mixed residential and business uses (i.e. storage of equipment for Travelling Showpeople) will be considered where appropriate.

4.51 Safeguarding existing sites: To maintain a supply of land and associated accommodation, the Council considers it important to ensure that, within the plan area, existing permanent authorised sites for Gypsies and Travellers are retained. Permitted accommodation for sites within the rural area will not set a precedent for permanent built dwellings. In order to protect existing permitted sites from other forms of development, sites will be safeguarded.


(11) Policy S7: Meeting Gypsies, Travellers and Travelling Showpeoples' Needs

The Gypsy, Traveller and Travelling Showpeople Assessment identifies the potential need for permanent pitches and plots for the period 2018 to 2035 as:

  • 91 additional permanent residential Gypsy and Traveller pitches of which 66 pitches are required before 2023; and
  • 28 additional plots for Travelling Showpeople, of which 18 are required before 2023.

Where there is a shortfall in provision, sites will be allocated within a Site Allocation DPD. The Council's annual monitoring process will ensure provision is provided at the appropriate time.

The following sequential approach will be applied when considering proposals for new Gypsy, Traveller and Travelling Showpeople provision, in the following order:

  1. Existing identified permitted sites, which could provide additional provision through intensification and/or improved orientation;
  1. Existing identified permitted sites which could provide additional provision through appropriate extension;
  1. Sites within existing settlement boundaries or strategic development locations.

Existing traveller sites will be safeguarded for traveller use. These sites will continue to be safeguarded for as long as the need exists for traveller accommodation in the Plan Area.

(11) Meeting Business and Employment Needs

4.52 The Local Plan Review strategy seeks to develop a strong and thriving economy, improving employment opportunities for all skills and diversifying the economy. This reflects the Plan vision and the main priorities identified in the Economic Development Strategy for Chichester District 2013-2019. This in turn reflects the key priorities of the Coast to Capital Local Economic Partnership (LEP) and the West Sussex County Economic Strategy. A key element of the Economic Development Strategy for the district is a targeted approach supporting businesses with high growth potential that reflect local characteristics.

4.53 The Local Plan Review will assist the creation of new jobs in a variety of ways, most obviously through the allocation of land for employment uses, but also by less direct means, for example, by promoting town centre regeneration, supporting local services in rural areas, enhancing visitor facilities, supporting expansion of education and training, building new dwellings and facilitating improvements to transport and telecommunications.

4.54 The Local Plan Review also seeks to maintain an attractive environment through protecting the landscape and heritage assets which will encourage tourism and inward investment from businesses that wish to locate here.

4.55 The Chichester Housing and Economic Development Needs Assessment considers the quantum of employment land (Use Classes B1, B2 and B8) appropriate to provide for this Plan. Based on a preferred scenario of continuing past rates of development of employment land, whilst also taking account of projected jobs which could be created in the economy and the potential demand for jobs arising from the future population of the plan area, it recommends[13] that a total of 145,835 sq.m of net additional floorspace is provided for in the period 2016-2035, split between 49,419 sq.m of B1 a/b, 34,561 sq.m of B1c/B2 and 61,855 sq.m of B8.

4.56 Recognising that further employment land may be lost during the plan period through permitted development rights and where it can be clearly demonstrated that certain individual employment sites are no longer suitable sites for employment use, the Council proposes to make provision for an additional 86,000 sq.m of employment floorspace, equivalent to 10 years of the annualised losses of employment floorspace observed in the period 2011-2016. The total additional quantum of floorspace provided for would be approximately 231,835 sq.m. This will help to provide the flexibility required in land supply to meet the net requirement identified in the Housing and Economic Development Needs Assessment HEDNA. This strategy will need to be monitored carefully, with the Local Plan Review subsequently reviewed if necessary.

4.57 The Local Plan Review makes provision for the identified needs through a combination of different sources as outlined in the policy below. In addition to completions and pipeline supply, new employment sites are provided for through allocations of land at:

  • Land south-west of Chichester (see Policy AL6)
  • Land west of Chichester (see Policy AL1)
  • Land at Chichester Business Park, Tangmere (see Policy AL15)
  • Land at Shopwyke (see Policy AL2)

4.58 In addition, provision is made within some of the new strategic site allocations for flexible working space to be provided within local centres/community hub buildings.

4.59 Elsewhere, planning policies will:

  • Safeguard existing employment sites from unjustified loss to other uses, whilst providing some flexibility to allow for leisure and community uses where clearly justified; and
  • Encourage refurbishment and intensification of existing employment sites
  • Provide for new employment sites within existing settlement boundaries and as part of residential-led development allocations.

(20) Policy S8: Meeting Employment Land Needs

To contribute towards sustainable economic growth, provision will be made for a net additional 145,835 sq.m of new floorspace for uses in the B Use Classes (B1, B2 and B8), in addition to other employment-generating uses, through the following sources of supply:

Category

Floorspace (m2)

Employment floorspace requirement for the full Plan period (1 April 2016 to 31 March 2035)


Identified need from HEDNA

145,835

Allowance for potential future losses

86,000

Floorspace to make provision for (1 April 2016 to 31 March 2035)

231,835



Identified sources of supply


Employment floorspace completions (1 April 2016 to 31 March 2017)

-1,819

Floorspace supply

(1 April 2017 to 31 March 2035)

Permissions

15,313

Allocations in Site Allocations DPD

1,989

Proposed allocations in this Plan (see Strategic Site Allocations Chapter)

219,700

Total supply for the full Plan period (1 April 2016 to 31 March 2035)

235,182

Proposals for employment related development on unallocated sites will be supported in accordance with Policy DM10 of this Plan. Proposals for significant new office development will be encouraged in Chichester City centre in accordance with Policy S13. Smaller-scale office developments will be supported in other settlements in accordance with Policy DM10.

There is a general presumption that existing employment sites will be retained, with proposals to replace and intensify existing units supported. Exceptionally, other leisure or community uses may be supported on employment sites (see Policy DM9).

Provision is made elsewhere in the Plan for other uses which are likely to create jobs, including those in retail. In addition, it is recognised that some sui-generis uses have very similar characteristics to B Class Uses. Policy DM9 provides for such uses to come forward on existing employment sites, subject to the criteria set out.

(9) Addressing the Need for Retailing

4.60 The overall strategy is to improve the vitality and viability of town and district centres by:

  • Safeguarding the retail function and character of each centre.
  • Enhancing the appearance, safety and environmental quality of the centres.
  • Encouraging a diversity of uses within centres, enabling a range of retail, leisure, social, educational, arts, cultural, office, commercial and where appropriate residential uses.
  • Promoting the short and long term reuse for vacant buildings
  • Enhancing the early evening and night time economy.
  • Improving access to the centres by sustainable modes of transport and encouraging multi-purpose trips.

Defining the Retail Hierarchy

4.61 Chichester City is considered to be a sub-regional centre. Its geography results in Chichester City being a dominant centre for its immediate catchment area. However, as a major tourist and visitor destination, due to its heritage and cultural offer in particular, Chichester City draws spend from beyond its primary catchment area. As such Chichester City provides a 'multi-layered' retail offer, from fulfilling day to day convenience shopping needs to a specialist retail role through the variety of specialist and independent shops on offer.

4.62 To meet this role Chichester City as a whole has an extensive and diverse array of retail facilities, comprising stores within the city centre (or town centre as defined in the NPPF paragraph 85), with retail warehouse parks at Barnfield Drive and Portfield.

4.63 In addition, there are Local Centres at Selsey and East Wittering which provide a large range of convenience shops. A further Local Centre will be developed at Tangmere as the Strategic Development Location is developed.

4.64 A collection of smaller local, Village and Suburban Centres are indicated in the Chichester Retail and Main Town Centre Uses Study 2018: Final Report (Retail Study) at Bracklesham, Southbourne, Bosham and Westbourne. These play or will play an important role in providing for day to day needs, not only in terms of convenience shopping, but also through community facilities. By providing a range of facilities in locations which are easily accessible for local people, they provide a focus for the community and help to reduce the need to travel. Detailed boundaries will be identified in a relevant neighbourhood plan or subsequent DPD.

4.65 In accordance with the NPPF (chapter 7), the Local Plan Review defines a hierarchy of centres. Development of main town centre uses should be of a scale that is proportionate with the settlement role and function and should not unbalance the town centre hierarchy. Based on the scale of facilities available within each settlement and the retail projections in the Retail Study, the retail hierarchy is defined below:

Centre Hierarchy

Centre

City Centre

Chichester

Local Centre

Selsey, East Wittering

Village Centres

Bracklesham, Southbourne, Tangmere, Bosham, Westbourne

Expanding the current retail offer

4.66 The health of Chichester City centre retail has been resilient through the recent recession. In this very competitive environment, it is important that the city continues to develop and enhance its retail offer in order to retain existing market share and attract new trade. With this in mind it is important to promote the city centre and restrict further developments in out of centre locations. Development in the city centre should improve, grow and maintain its offer in order to attract visitors, residents, businesses and investment. In order to maintain its market share the Southern Gateway has been identified as an area for mixed use development including an element of retail. Investigations are currently taking place to identify further development sites, possibly carpark sites, in or adjacent to the city centre for retail focussed mixed use.

Local Centre boundaries

4.67 The designation of primary shopping area and town centre boundaries is important when applying the sequential approach, to direct retail and town centre uses to sustainable locations and determine whether a retail impact assessment is required. In line with the NPPF (para 85 b) a local centre boundary has been defined for Chichester City and is shown on the amendments to policy maps produced separately to this document for comments.

4.68 In addition, the Selsey district centre boundary has been designated through the neighbourhood plan, whilst the East Wittering local centre boundary has been defined in the Site Allocation Development Plan Document (2018).

Future Requirements

4.69 The Retail Study identifies the requirements for future retail development up to 2036. It concludes that there is no clear identified deficiency in food stores (convenience goods) during the Plan period.

4.70 In respect to comparison goods, there is a need to plan for development in order to retain the city's shopping role and market share. Given the uncertainty in the retail sector at present, with well-known retailers closing and the move to internet shopping, the Local Plan Review makes provision for the period up to 2026. Given the Government's requirement to review Local Plans every five years, this provides the Council an opportunity to monitor the retail sector and update the figures as necessary.

Impact Assessment

4.71 An impact assessment may be required below the thresholds set out in Policy S9 below, where a proposalwould have an independent or cumulative impact on the vitality and viability including local consumer choice and trade on a defined centre, or have a significant impact on existing, committed and planned public and private investment in defined centres.

(18) Policy S9: Retail Hierarchy and Sequential Approach

Retail Requirement

For the period up to 2026 provision will be made for 9,500 sq.m (gross) of comparison retail floorspace at Chichester City, through provision at Southern Gateway and other opportunity sites, taking account of the sequential test.

Hierarchy of town centres

The vitality and viability of the city and local centres, local and village parades will be maintained and enhanced. The existing network will form the focal point for uses, services, and facilities serving the surrounding population. The scale, character and role of the centres define their position within the hierarchy. The network of centres within the plan area is as follows:

  • Chichester City centre (defined as Town Centre on the policies map);
  • Selsey and East Wittering (defined as 'Local Centres' as shown on the policies map); and
  • Bracklesham, Southbourne, Tangmere, Bosham and Westbourne ('Village Centre to be defined in the neighbourhood plans or subsequent DPD).

In order to safeguard and enhance the established retail hierarchy any proposals for additional retail provision outside the defined City Centre and Local Centres will be subject to the requirements set out in Policy S10.

Main town centre uses will be directed to the City and Local Centres defined in this policy and in accordance with other Local Plan policies in relation to specific uses.

Proposals for main town centre uses outside a defined city or local centre must be subject to an impact assessment where the floorspace of the proposed development exceeds the following thresholds:

  • Chichester City centre: over 2,500 sq.m gross floorspace.
  • Local centres: over 500 sq.m gross floorspace.
  • Village centres: over 250 sq.m gross floorspace.

Local Centres, including shopping parades and stand-alone shops form an important resource for businesses, visitors and residents. The expansion and additional provision of such facilities to a scale appropriate to the existing settlement or the planned expansion of that settlement will be welcomed by the Council provided that it adds to the range and accessibility of goods and services.

4.72 Local and Village Centres East Wittering and Selsey are defined as Local Centres, and have a good mix of smaller independent comparison goods retailers. They also have a good range of facilities catering for visitors, particularly cafes, bars and restaurants. Proposals which provide quality places for eating, drinking and fashion retailing would enhance the roles of these settlements.

4.73 Village Centres provide services which can meet basic day to day needs. Additional development which will improve the sustainability of each will be supported.

4.74 For evidence required to justify a change of use please refer to Appendix C.


(9) Policy S10: Local Centres, Local and Village Parades

Proposals for development will be encouraged where they would contribute to the vitality and viability of Local Centre, Local and Village Parades. Planning permission will be granted for development proposals that:

  1. Provide small-scale retail uses (Use Classes A1 to A5), contributing to the vitality and viability of the area;
  1. Support small and independent businesses; and
  1. Proposals provide an active retail frontage use at ground floor and maximise opportunities for residential, leisure and office development above ground floor units where appropriate.

For town centre uses outside of the City, Local Centres and Village Centres, planning permission will be granted where either:

  1. The net sales area is 250 sq.m or less; or
  1. It has been demonstrated that there are no other sequentially preferable sites within or on the edge of Local Centres and Local / Village Parades

Other uses will be granted where it has been demonstrated that all the following criteria have been met:

  1. The proposal does not result in the reduction of shopping facilities; or
  1. There is no demand for continued retail use and the site has been marketed effectively for such use or no local need has been identified.

(4) Addressing Horticultural Needs

4.75 The southern part of the plan area accommodates a horticultural industry which has taken advantage of the comparatively high winter light levels experienced in the area to become nationally and internationally competitive. The Council has a long-standing track record in supporting this industry through the designation of four Horticultural Development Areas (HDAs) around Tangmere, Runcton, Sidlesham and Almodington.

4.76 In considering the needs of the industry through the plan period, the findings of the Housing and Economic Development Needs Assessment (HEDNA) have been taken into account. This report identifies a maximum requirement of 228,000 sq.m of net additional floorspace, albeit it also acknowledges that there are a number of uncertainties about the extent of growth in the industry, including its future after the country leaves the European Union.

4.77 In response to the findings of the HEDNA, the Council has reviewed the function and capacity of the previously designated HDAs as a policy tool to meet the anticipated future needs of the industry.

4.78 The Council has concluded that the existing HDAs at Tangmere, Runcton, Sidlesham and Almodington should be retained with the following principles of development to apply:

  1. Taking account of existing commitments (i.e. planning permission already granted), the remaining requirement can be accommodated within the existing Tangmere HDA which has sufficient capacity.
  1. It is acknowledged that in certain circumstances, land may be required at the Runcton HDA area which is almost at capacity. In this event, land may be utilised where available within the HDA or on areas of land adjacent to the HDA, in line with Policy DM15.
  1. Small-scale horticultural development will continue to be focussed within the Sidlesham and Almodington HDAs.
  1. The HDA boundaries at Runcton and Tangmere have been reviewed, which has led to the Runcton HDA boundary being amended as shown on the proposed changes to policies map.

4.79 All other horticultural development proposed outside of the HDAs will need to provide clear justification as to why the development cannot accord with the above principles of development. The policy set out below identifies the horticultural needs of the plan area, and the broad strategy to meet this need.

(13) Policy S11: Addressing Horticultural Needs

To support the growth of the horticultural industry within the plan area, specific provision will be made for a maximum of 228,000 sq.m of additional floorspace for glasshouse, packhouse and polytunnel development, through the following sources of supply:

Category

Floorspace (m2)

Maximum horticultural floorspace requirement for the full Plan period (April 2016 to March 2035)

228,000

Committed supply of horticultural floorspace within Tangmere & Runcton HDA (permissions granted April 2016 to March 2018)

160,000

Residual requirement to be accommodated during Plan Period at Tangmere & Runcton HDAs

68,000

Large scale horticultural glasshouses will continue to be focused within the existing Horticultural Development Areas at Tangmere and Runcton. The Sidlesham and Almodington Horticultural Development Areas will continue to be the focus for smaller scale horticultural glasshouses. Policy DM15 sets out the detailed considerations for applications in these areas.

The anticipated residual requirement of 68,000 of the maximum floorspace requirement will be kept under review during the plan period. Policy DM15 provides the framework within which applications outside of the HDA will be considered.


(17) Providing Supporting Infrastructure and Services

4.80 The provision of infrastructure is necessary to support development. It can range from strategic provision, such as the provision of a new road or school, to the creation of a local play-space, community facilities, a country park, or improvements to telecommunications. A key element of the Local Plan Review is for new development to be coordinated with the infrastructure it requires and to take into account the capacity of existing infrastructure.

4.81 Delivery of infrastructure to support new development will be dependent upon maximising the contribution from the development process whilst recognising that a contribution from both the public and private sector will frequently be necessary. This includes the Government's role in providing the necessary investment to achieve sustainable growth, including appropriate revenue support to those agencies required to manage or serve such development. West Sussex County Council has developed a Strategic Infrastructure Package to enable the provision of County Council services to meet the needs of new strategic development.

4.82 The Infrastructure Delivery Plan (IDP) that accompanies the Local Plan Review identifies programmed infrastructure provision from both the public and private sector, in addition to that delivered through the development process. It provides an overview of the infrastructure requirements and, where known, who is responsible for delivery and a broad indication of phasing, costs and funding mechanisms at the local level. Capacity in infrastructure and services will be monitored through updates of the Infrastructure Delivery Plan and future infrastructure need assessments via the five year rolling Infrastructure Business Plan.

4.83 The Council has implemented the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) to secure funding for infrastructure necessary to support development and meet the Local Plan Review objectives. Some site specific infrastructure may still be secured through S106 obligations. Community facilities may be delivered at a local level through neighbourhood plans and the parish share of CIL contributions.

4.84 Some funding for the A27 junctions package of improvements has already been secured from planning permissions granted to date. This approach will continue in the Local Plan Review and financial contributions (S106 and S278) will be secured from the Strategic Site Allocations and other locations where substantial housing is identified in the Local Plan Review but is not yet subject to planning permission. The amount of financial contributions sought will be set out in the review of the Planning Obligations and Affordable Housing SPD.

4.85 Provision for additional primary school spaces, where required, is expected to be provided for through the expansion of existing schools and delivery of new primary schools within the large scale development sites. Although there is currently capacity for additional secondary school children in the Chichester locality, with the planned growth of this Plan being capable of being accommodated within existing secondary school sites, this position will kept under regular review.

4.86 The requirement to provide new or enhanced infrastructure must not be so onerous as to render development unviable, taking into account other policy requirements such as affordable housing provision. For this reason an independent viability study will be carried out to inform this strategy and the IDP.

(57) Policy S12: Infrastructure Provision

The Council will work with neighbouring councils, infrastructure providers and stakeholders to ensure that new physical, economic, social, environmental and green infrastructure is provided to support the development provided for in this Plan.

Development and infrastructure provision will be coordinated to ensure that growth is
supported by the timely provision of adequate infrastructure, facilities and services. The Infrastructure Delivery Plan will be used to identify the timing, type and number of infrastructure requirements to support the objectives and policies of the Plan as well as the main funding mechanisms and lead agencies responsible for their delivery.

All development will be required to meet all the following criteria:

  1. Make effective use of existing infrastructure, facilities and services, including
    opportunities for co-location and multi-functional use of facilities;
  1. Provide or fund new infrastructure, facilities or services required, both on and off-site, (including full fibre communications infrastructure) as a consequence of the proposal;
  1. Safeguard the requirements of infrastructure providers, including but not limited to:
  • electronic communications networks (particularly high speed broadband),
  • electricity power lines,
  • high pressure gas mains,
  • educational facilities,
  • health facilities,
  • aquifer protection areas, and
  • water supply mains and foul sewers.
  1. Facilitate accessibility to facilities and services by a range of transport modes; and
  1. Where appropriate:
  • Phase development to coordinate with the delivery of necessary infrastructure, facilities and services;
  • Provide for the future maintenance of infrastructure, facilities or services provided as a result of the development.

Decisions on the provision of infrastructure should be based on a whole life costs approach.

If infrastructure requirements could render a development unviable, proposals for major development should be supported by an independent viability assessment on terms agreed by the relevant parties including the Council and County Council, and funded by the developer. This will involve an open book approach. Where viability constraints are demonstrated by evidence, the Council will:

  • prioritise developer contributions made through CIL for essential and then other infrastructure in accordance with the detailed requirements set out in the Infrastructure Delivery Plan; and/or
  • use an appropriate mechanism to defer part of the developer contributions requirement to a later date; and
  • as a last resort, refuse planning permission if the development would be unsustainable without inclusion of the unfunded infrastructure requirements taking into account reasonable contributions from elsewhere including CIL.

Sub-area Strategies

4.87 Policy S3 sets out the broad development strategy across the plan area, recognising the different characteristics and opportunities of the three sub-areas. Further detail on the strategies for each of these areas, including approaches to specific matters in each area, is set out below.

(5) East-West Corridor

4.88 The east-west corridor continues to be identified as the focus for accommodating the additional growth of the plan area. The corridor offers comparatively good public transport options and easy access to higher-order/large scale services such as those available in Chichester City. Development in this corridor also provides the opportunity to minimise the impact of development on the natural environment, including designated sites. Evidence suggests that there is a significant movement of people along this corridor, both utilising public transport and the strategic road network.

(1) Chichester City

4.89 Chichester City is the main employment and commercial centre and accounts for a high proportion of the area's local housing need. It is also the most accessible location in the plan area and offers the widest range of services and facilities. For these reasons, the Local Plan Review directs a significant amount of new development to the city and its surrounding area. This approach reflects the aspirations as set out in Chichester Tomorrow – A Vision for Chichester City Centre.

4.90 In addition to providing for local needs, it is intended that new development will contribute to improving the city's infrastructure and enhancing its range of facilities. At the same time, it is acknowledged that new development needs to be planned sensitively with special regard to the unique character of the city's historic environment and setting, and should be underpinned by historic characterisation assessments. Development should also take account of, and contribute towards, the transport strategy for the city (see Policy S14) and have particular regard to parking policies (see Policy DM8). Development at the edge of the built area provides opportunities to achieve additional green infrastructure in and around the city, particularly linking towards the South Downs National Park and Chichester Harbour. Detailed proposals for the city centre and other areas of change in the city may be brought forward through Supplementary Planning Document(s) and / or Development Plan Document(s).

4.91 The city centre is the historic heart of Chichester and the main location for shopping, entertainment, visitor attractions, and a large proportion of the city's employment. In order to maintain and enhance the vitality of the centre, it is desirable to plan to accommodate a mix of uses including some new retail, other business uses such as offices, and residential development. Entertainment and leisure facilities to boost the 'evening economy' may also be appropriate in some locations, though such development will need to be sensitive to the
historic character of the city.

4.92 There are a number of sites with potential for redevelopment to the south of the city centre in the area known as the 'Southern Gateway', including the Basin Road Royal Mail Delivery site and Bus Depot. Within this area, there is potential to provide an enhanced rail/bus interchange; new office and commercial floorspace; some new residential development; enhancements to the townscape, streetscape and public space; and improved road layouts providing better cycling and pedestrian access to the city centre from the south. Policy AL5 sets out the detailed policy requirements for development in this area. A masterplan for Southern Gateway was adopted as a Supplementary Planning Document in November 2017.

4.93 Elsewhere within the city, there are a number of sites and locations which may have potential for redevelopment in the future, subject to the relocation or rationalisation of existing uses. Opportunities for new development may be identified through the preparation of future supplementary planning documents which would set out the detailed considerations on such sites. To guide future development within the city, the principles of the following policy will be applied.

(27) Policy S13: Chichester City Development Principles

New development, infrastructure and facilities will be planned for Chichester City that enhance the city's role as a sub-regional centre and visitor destination, contribute to meeting local needs, and conserve and enhance the city's historic character and heritage. This will include provision for development and proposals that:

  • Support and strengthen the vitality and viability of the city centre and its role as a shopping/visitor destination, employment centre and a place to live;
  • Support and enhance the city's existing heritage, arts and cultural facilities;
  • Enhance the city's existing heritage, arts and cultural facilities;
  • Enhance the city's existing entertainment and leisure offer, including the 'evening economy';
  • Reinforce and strengthen the city's office market;
  • Protect views of the cathedral;
  • Provide or contribute towards improved facilities for education, health and other social and community uses;
  • Enhance the character and distinctiveness of the city's local neighbourhoods;
  • Provide or contribute towards an enhanced network of green infrastructure, including additional parks and amenity open space, outdoor sport pitches, recreational routes and access to natural green space;
  • Support and promote improved access to the city and sustainable modes of travel in accordance with the transport strategy for the city (see Policy S14); and
  • Enhance the public realm, especially within the city centre and key routes in and out of the city.

All development will be required to have special regard to the city's historic character and heritage. Development proposals should be underpinned by historic characterisation assessments and make a positive contribution to the city's unique character and distinctiveness.

If necessary, the Council may prepare a Supplementary Planning Document(s) or Development Plan Document(s) which will set out a coordinated planning framework covering Chichester City centre and other areas of change in the city, which will identify development sites, transport and environmental improvements and define areas within which specific uses are considered appropriate and will be supported.

4.94 The city is also the primary focus of the commercial property market for the plan area, providing a range of accommodation for both the office and industrial market. The employment land strategy of this Plan seeks to focus the majority of the identified additional floorspace needed on sites within and close to the city, particularly Policy AL6 (land south-west of Chichester).

Chichester City Transport Strategy

4.95 Planning for transport remains a key issue for Chichester City, particularly highway congestion during peak periods on the A27 at the key junctions into and out of the city and the interaction between vehicular and non-vehicular traffic within the city centre. Delays also result from the railway level crossings to the south of the city centre. Due to the historic character of the city, there is limited space for road widening or engineered junction improvements. Parking availability is also an issue at peak times and on-street parking limits traffic flows on some radial routes.

4.96 In addition to causing delays and unreliable journey times, the transport movements and traffic congestion have a detrimental impact on air quality in the city. This has resulted in the designation of three Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs), covering parts of Orchard Street, St Pancras and the A27 Stockbridge roundabout junction.

4.97 Addressing these transport issues is critical to enable the city to remain a vibrant centre and commercially competitive as a business location. In addition, the development proposed for the city and surrounding area will result in increased travel demands and lead to further pressures on the local transport network. However, due to its compact size and accessibility by public transport, the city presents good opportunities to encourage more sustainable travel patterns and increase the use of sustainable modes of travel. Furthermore, the proposed development offers potential to develop coordinated strategies and funding.

4.98 The Transport Study of Strategic Development Options and Sustainable Transport Measures prepared by Peter Brett Associates to inform the preparation of this Plan has identified a need for potential interventions on highway junctions within the city centre to mitigate the anticipated levels of development, as well as a package of improvements to the junctions on the A27 Chichester Bypass which will help to improve access to the city from the surrounding areas. The improvements to the A27 junctions are discussed further on pages 79-83. The junctions within the city centre identified as potentially requiring improvement in the study are:

  • A286 Northgate / A286 Orchard Street;
  • A286 Churchside / A286 Broyle Road;
  • A286 New Park Road / A286 St Pancras Road;
  • Via Ravenna / A259 Cathedral Way Roundabout;
  • A286 Stockbridge / Terminus Road; and
  • A259 Cathedral Way / Fishbourne Road / Terminus Road.

4.99 With specific regard to these potential interventions, and others, within the city centre to mitigate the impact of anticipated future development on the highway network, West Sussex County Council has recently commissioned two complementary studies. The Chichester Vision – Transport Feasibility Study will provide a detailed assessment of the projected changes in traffic movements across the city (including the transport assessment informing this Local Plan Review), before setting out suitable and deliverable interventions which could deliver the highway and transport interventions identified in the Chichester Vision. The Sustainable Transport Package Feasibility for Chichester Study will examine ways in which those using Chichester City could be encouraged to switch to more sustainable modes of transport.

4.100 Whilst this plan is not dependent on the outcomes of these studies, the results will be incorporated into this Plan as it develops.

4.101 Car parking policy will continue to play a key role in helping to manage car use and highways capacity in the city. The Chichester District Car Park Strategy 2010-2020 seeks to manage car parking demand in the city through a package of measures, including the provision of variable messaging signing to key car parks, minor increases in parking capacity and reductions in car use through the County Council's 'Smarter Choices' initiative. Although the introduction of a Park and Ride scheme is not considered necessary at the present time, the Strategy includes a commitment to review the position if spare capacity in the city's car parks falls below a specified level.

4.102 Funding for these transport measures is expected to primarily be drawn from development contributions through the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL), to be supplemented by funding from other sources where opportunities arise. Such sources of funding may include New Homes Bonus, Local Growth Funds, Growing Places Fund and Regional Growth Funds.

(49) Policy S14: Chichester City Transport Strategy

The Council will work with West Sussex County Council and other relevant organisations to deliver an integrated transport strategy for Chichester City, taking account of existing and emerging studies of potential interventions to the highway and wider transport system.

Currently identified measures include:

  • Initiatives to promote behavioural change in travel choices, including but not limited to travel plans, easy-to-use journey planning tools, skills training and promotional activities;
  • Reviewing car parking provision, including encouraging use of peripheral car parks to reduce traffic in the city centre and giving consideration to the introduction of parking restrictions along some arterial routes to improve traffic circulation (particularly for buses);
  • Introducing bus lanes and bus priority measures along key routes (including the A259 Bognor Road approaching its junction with the A27);
  • Reviewing and expanding the use of Variable Message Systems (VMS);
  • Providing Real Time Passenger Information (RTPI) screens at key locations;
  • Exploring potential options to provide an improved bus / rail interchange;
  • Delivering strategic cycle routes linking the city centre, residential areas and key facilities, including proposed areas of new housing, employment and greenspace within and close to the city; and
  • Improvements to the pedestrian network within and around the city, including proposed areas of new development and greenspace.

In addition to the coordinated package of improvements to junctions on the A27 Chichester Bypass identified in Policy S23, the Council will also work closely with West Sussex County Council to implement the highway interventions identified in the forthcoming Chichester Vision – Transport Feasibility Study in order to reduce traffic congestion and improving safety at key junctions in the city


(1) East of Chichester

4.103 To the east of the city, site allocations from the 2015 Local Plan are proposed to be retained at Shopwyke for 585 dwellings (see Policy AL2), Westhampnett/North East Chichester for 500 dwellings (see Policy AL4) and modified at Tangmere to provide for an additional 300 dwellings over and above the 1000 dwellings previously allocated) (see Policy AL14). The employment allocation at Tangmere (Policy AL15) is also proposed to be carried forward which will provide for an additional 4 ha of employment land (approximately 24,000 sq.m of floorspace depending on exact use and plot ratios).

4.104 In addition to the above, a new site allocation is proposed on land east of Chichester (Oving Parish) for a residential-led development including 600 dwellings through Policy AL3.

4.105 Together these developments, which are located in relatively close proximity to Chichester City, provide significant opportunities for strategic growth over the plan period.

Goodwood Motor Circuit and Airfield

4.106 Goodwood Motor Circuit and Airfield represents a significant leisure and tourism destination within the plan area, particularly on occasions such as the Goodwood Revival where a significant number of visitors are attracted to the site. The economic and cultural benefits afforded to the wider area from such events are well documented.

4.107 The Council remains supportive of the ongoing operation of the site as a motor circuit and airfield, subject to the existing legal agreements secured which limit aircraft movements and noise generating activities, particularly from motorsport. Opportunities to replace and improve the facilities within the site will be supported, subject to the considerations set out in the following policy.


(22) Policy S15: Goodwood Motor Circuit and Airfield

The Council is supportive of the role that Goodwood Motor Circuit and Airfield plays in the plan area's economy and in attracting visitors to the area. The Council will permit proposals for outdoor sport, recreation and leisure activities in connection or ancillary to the existing motor sport use at Goodwood Motor Circuit and Airfield, provided the proposal does not conflict with other policies of the Plan.

The following criteria will also apply to such proposals:

  1. The proposed development must not result in increased noise levels experienced by nearby residential properties over and above that already permitted;
  1. The character of the area should be retained and reinforced;
  1. The proposed development should be appropriate in scale and character to the existing uses or buildings;
  1. Any anticipated additional demand for traffic movements should be appropriately mitigated with opportunities for non-car based travel options secured and additional private vehicular traffic confined to utilising the existing access

The Council will continue to support the use of the site as an airfield. Proposals for airfield related development will be supported where it can be demonstrated that:

  • it represents the replacement of existing facilities on the site which are designed to be similar in terms of size and scale to those they are replacing;
  • it ensures the ongoing safe and operational efficiency of the airfield; and
  • it would not lead to an increased number of flights in excess of the existing legal agreement

Any development proposals within the vicinity of the site must clearly demonstrate how the development would protect, and where possible enhance, the operation and heritage of the site as a motor-circuit and airfield.

Development within the vicinity of Goodwood Motor Circuit and Airfield

4.108 The Motor Circuit and Airfield is located immediately north-east of the City of Chichester, with the settlements of Westhampnett and Westerton being located relatively close to the southern and eastern boundaries of the site.

4.109 The relationship between the Motor Circuit and Airfield and surrounding residential properties and other noise-sensitive neighbours is a significant consideration for the Council. For some years, the Council has operated a 400 metre buffer zone around the Motor Circuit and Airfield site where there has been a presumption against allowing residential development within this area (see paragraph 12.50 of the 2015 adopted Local Plan.

4.110 To inform the preparation of this Plan, an investigation of the suitability of maintaining this buffer zone was carried out by MAS Environmental Ltd. The resultant report 'Assessment of motor circuit and general aviation noise in relation to the development of the Local Plan 2 for Chichester District Council' concluded that, taking into account the complex combination of noise generating activities taking place within the site, a 400m buffer between the site and any proposals for noise-sensitive development should be maintained. Within the 400m buffer, a general presumption against noise-sensitive development should be maintained unless it can be clearly demonstrated that the development will achieve acceptable appropriate internal and external amenity standards with regard to noise and disturbance experienced, taking into account the particular characteristics of the noise emanating from the site. The report also identifies the potential for noise disturbance arising from activities at the Motor Circuit and Airfield to be a significant issue beyond the 400m buffer. Any development proposals in these circumstances would need to accord with the provisions of Policy DM25, taking into account the detailed findings of the MAS Study and any other evidence available. The report also identifies the potential for noise disturbance arising from activities at the Motor Circuit and Airfield to be a significant issue beyond the 400m buffer. Any development proposals in these circumstances would need to accord with the provisions of Policy DM25, taking into account the detailed findings of the MAS Study and any other evidence available.

(29) Policy S16: Development within vicinity of Goodwood Motor Circuit and Airfield

There is a general presumption against development proposals for noise-sensitive development within 400m of Goodwood Motor Circuit and Airfield, as defined on the policies map. Where development for noise-sensitive development is proposed within this area, planning permission will only be granted where it can be clearly and robustly demonstrated that:

  1. An acceptable level of amenity, by reason of expected experienced noise and disturbance, will be provided for the future occupiers of the noise-sensitive development within both internal and external areas of the development; and
  1. that the above levels of amenity are achieved without an adverse impact on the design and layout of the proposed development by reason of noise mitigation measures.

In considering the above, the Council will be mindful of the particular noise characteristics typically emanating from the site.

(7) West of Chichester

4.111 To the west of Chichester, and south of the A27, there are a number of settlements that are orientated around the West Coastway railway line and A259. These settlements accommodate a range of facilities and services, whilst also offering relatively high levels of accessibility to Chichester City and other large settlements outside of the plan area.

4.112 In recognition of the attributes of this area, the Plan seeks to continue to allocate land west of Chichester for a total of 1,600 new dwellings, 6 hectares of employment land (approximately 36,000 sq.m of employment land, depending on plot ratios) and associated uses.

4.113 Elsewhere a significant proportion of planned future growth of the plan area is identified on the A259 corridor to the west. The following locations have been identified as being capable of accommodating the majority of the growth provided for in the area:

  • Fishbourne – identified in the settlement hierarchy as a 'Service Village'. Policy AL9 provides for 250 dwellings to come forward through the neighbourhood planning process.
  • Bosham– also identified as a 'Service Village' Policy AL7 allocates land at Highgrove Farm for 250 dwellings in addition to the 50 dwellings allocated in the existing Site Allocation DPD (2018).
  • Chidham and Hambrook– identified as a 'Service Village' with Policy AL10 provides for 500 dwellings to come forward through the neighbourhood planning process.
  • Southbourne – identified as a 'Settlement Hub'. Policy AL13 provides for 1250 dwellings to come forward through the neighbourhood planning process

4.114 In addition to the above, and recognising the need to make significant provision for a new employment site to accommodate the majority of long term needs for the plan area, Policy AL6 provides for 33 ha of land to come forward for an employment-led development on land south-west of Chichester.

4.115 To the north of the A27, there is a series of small villages and hamlets interspersed with farmland and woodland. This area provides a transition into the South Downs National Park. Opportunities for development in this area appear to be limited due to land availability, landscape considerations, settlement patterns and available infrastructure. For these reasons, the Plan does not propose to provide for any significant development in these areas. This position will be kept under review as the Plan moves forward.


Thorney Island

4.116 Thorney Island is a peninsula extending into Chichester Harbour with a singular vehicular access from the A259. Much of the island is covered by a Ministry of Defence military base and airfield occupied by the Royal Artillery. The Island is low-lying and thus at risk of flooding and its salt marshes and grasslands are important habitats for wildlife.

4.117 The Council will support the Ministry of Defence in its continued operation of the military base, including development proposals required to sustain its operational capability. Should any form of physical expansion of the site be required this will be considered in conjunction with the constraints of the site. If proposals emerge which would require a significant uplift in military personnel, the Council will work with the Ministry of Defence, local authorities within the vicinity of the island and other key stakeholders to ensure that any identified increased need for housing is provided for in a way which meets the operational requirements of the base and the sustainable development of the wider area.

4.118 If for any reason the existing military use ceases, any future use will need to be planned sensitively through the preparation of a masterplan, developed with the local planning authority in conjunction with the local community. This should take into account the particular characteristics of the Island and its environmental designations. In particular, development would need to be compatible with the Chichester Harbour AONB and avoid or mitigate any impact on the adjoining SPA/SAC/Ramsar designation. This is likely to preclude the use of the airfield for civil or general aviation purposes and land and sea based noisy sports. Proposals will also need to demonstrate that suitable vehicular access to the site can be secured.

4.119 Given the existing contribution that the military makes to the economy of the area, the focus for consideration of any alternative uses should be on employment-led development in the first instance. The cultural and historical significance of the existing military use of the Island, and the potential for remains of archaeological interest, should inform the scope for the future development of the site.

4.120 Opportunities should be explored to reduce the extent of developed land on the island and to significantly enhance the quality of the landscape and the natural environment. Opportunities for increased public access should be explored, providing these are compatible with the environmental designations.


(10) Policy S17: Thorney Island

Proposals for new development and changes of use at the military base and airfield at Thorney Island which help enhance or sustain its operational military capability will be supported. Development proposals within the vicinity of Thorney Island will be expected to demonstrate that they will not adversely affect the operation of the military base and airfield.

Should Thorney Island cease to be required for military purposes, assessment of potential alternative uses will be considered through a masterplanning process which takes into account the location, characteristics and designations affecting the Island.

All development proposals should seek to enhance the overall character of the Island, mitigate any adverse impacts on local infrastructure, not erode the character of the surrounding area and take opportunities to increase public access. Particular regard will be given to the environmental sensitivity of the location within the Chichester Harbour AONB and the proximity of the Chichester Harbour SAC/SPA/Ramsar.

Development proposals for aviation and noisy sports uses are unlikely to be considered acceptable.

All proposals must ensure that the cultural and historical significance of the military facilities (and any other significant archaeological assets) located on the site, are understood and inform the scope of future development of that site.

(5) Manhood Peninsula

4.121 The Manhood Peninsula covers the southernmost part of the plan area, extending from just south of Chichester City to the coast. The area has a distinctive character and faces a specific set of planning challenges. These issues include:

  • Significant areas at risk from coastal erosion and flooding, which is further accentuated by a high water table and poor land drainage. These issues need to be managed and mitigated in the face of climate change. The Medmerry Realignment, which was permitted in 2011, involved the managed realignment of a section of coastline, involving the creation of a new inter-tidal zone.
  • Environmental designations cover, or impact on, most of the Peninsula, including the Chichester and Pagham Harbours SAC/SPA/Ramsar sites, the Chichester Harbour AONB, and the Medmerry Realignment compensatory habitat.
  • Poor road accessibility and problems of traffic congestion result from the limited road connections to the north, the junctions on the A27 Chichester Bypass, and the impacts of summer holiday traffic. There are reasonably regular bus services serving Selsey, East Wittering and the other main settlements on the Peninsula. However, these are more limited in terms of evening and weekend services. These problems of accessibility are further accentuated by the fact that the Peninsula relies strongly on Chichester City for employment, shopping, entertainment and other key facilities, which increases the need to travel.
  • The local economy is heavily dependent on tourism, agriculture and horticulture, resulting in a relative lack of employment opportunities with many local jobs seasonal and poorly paid. The development of green tourism could extend the season and increase the viability of the tourism economy.
  • The Peninsula has an above-average proportion of older people and is a popular retirement area. Many of the coastal areas also have very high numbers of second homes.

4.122 Across the Peninsula, there is a need to adapt to the potential impacts of climate change and sea level rise and address the economic, social and transport/accessibility issues facing the area, whilst protecting its unique character. The Plan continues to provide for moderate growth in the Peninsula to reflect these circumstances, specifically the limited infrastructure and significant environmental considerations.

Integrated Coastal Zone Management for the Manhood Peninsula

4.123 In delivering this growth, the Council continues to work with other public bodies and local communities to develop a coordinated approach known as the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). This process integrates the different policies that have an effect on the coast. There is a strong focus upon partnership working and informed collaboration between all relevant stakeholders.

4.124 The Council has adopted a plan titled 'Towards Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) on the Manhood Peninsula', which identifies management options for the coastal zone. It is an aspirational plan that reflects the views and objectives of the communities on the Peninsula. The document has been subject to public consultation and therefore has some weight as a material planning consideration.

4.125 This Plan provides a framework for an integrated approach to meet the particular challenges facing the Manhood Peninsula. The Council will continue to work with other relevant stakeholders to implement the community aspirations and objectives set out in the 'Towards ICZM' document.

(35) Policy S18: Integrated Coastal Zone Management for the Manhood Peninsula

The Council will prepare plans, strategies, projects and other measures, in partnership with other organisations and local communities, to ensure that the Manhood Peninsula is planned for in a coordinated and integrated manner, whilst recognising the individual needs of the communities within the area.

Proposals and initiatives will be supported that promote the following general objectives:

  1. Facilitate the economic, environmental and social well-being of the area;
  1. Address proposals for the coastline and coastal communities set out in Coastal Defence Strategies and Shoreline Management Plans;
  1. Contribute to greater safeguarding of property from flooding or erosion and/or enable the area and pattern of development to adapt to change, including the relocation of current settlement areas, and vulnerable facilities and infrastructure that might be directly affected by the consequences of climate change;
  1. Provide resources to improve the process of harbour and coastal management, incorporating and integrating social, recreational, economic, physical and environmental issues and actions;
  1. Improve infrastructure to support sustainable modes of transport, especially cycle ways, bridleways and footpaths, including the National Coastal Footpath; and
  1. Provide the means of supporting regeneration on the Manhood Peninsula.

All development proposals must take account of relevant Surface Water Management Plans, Catchment Flood Management Plans and related flood defence plans and strategies.

Financial contributions may be required from development on sites where measures to address flood risk or to improve the environmental quality of watercourses have been identified by these plans and strategies.

4.126 Within the Peninsula, the following locations have been identified as being capable of accommodating the majority of the growth provided for in the area:

  • Selsey – identified in the settlement hierarchy as a 'settlement hub'. Policy AL12 allocates land at North of Park Farm for 250 dwellings.
  • East Wittering/Bracklesham – also identified as a 'settlement hub' Policy AL8 makes provision for 350 dwellings to come forward in this area through the neighbourhood planning process.
  • Hunston – identified a 'service village'. Policy AL11 makes provision for 200 dwellings to come forward in this area through the neighbourhood planning process.

(1) North of Plan Area

4.127 The North of the plan area covers those parts of Chichester District which lie north of the South Downs National Park boundary. This includes Loxwood Parish and most of the parishes of Kirdford, Plaistow and Ifold, and Wisborough Green, together with a small part of Lynchmere Parish close to the Surrey border around the villages of Camelsdale and Hammer.

4.128 This part of the plan area is predominantly rural with few sizeable settlements, characterised by undulating countryside with a high proportion of woodland, typical of the Low Weald landscape. Conserving the rural character of the area, with its high quality landscape and environment is a key objective. However, there is an identified need to accommodate some development to address local housing and employment needs, and support local village facilities.

4.129 Accessibility to services and facilities is a particular issue for this area, with local residents having to travel significant distances for many facilities. The larger villages provide a range of local facilities and play an important role in providing services to their local communities. However, for higher order facilities such as employment, shopping, secondary schools and leisure facilities, the area mainly depends on larger settlements outside the plan area, principally Billingshurst and Haslemere, and further afield Guildford, Horsham and Crawley. Public transport serving the area is also currently very limited.

4.130 Given the present constraints on development in the area, the Local Plan Review provides for only limited growth focused on enabling these communities to continue to sustain its local facilities and contribute towards meeting locally generated housing needs, and support for the rural economy, in line with the overall Plan strategy and settlement hierarchy.

4.131 Opportunities should also be explored to improve accessibility of these communities to local facilities, larger settlements outside of the plan area and links into the South Downs National Park with the recreational and leisure opportunities that it can provide. In this context, the proposed development of Dunsfold Park in Waverley Borough (approximately 3 miles north of the plan area boundary) presents an opportunity to explore the longer term potential to improve public transport provision in this area.

4.132 Sites in these parishes will be identified either in neighbourhood plans or a future Development Plan Document.

(10) Policy S19: North of the Plan Area

Provision will be made for development in the North of the Plan area through Neighbourhood Plans and/or Development Plan Documents, in accordance with Policies S3 and S5.

The Council will encourage and support development proposals and other initiatives that:

  • Conserve and enhance the rural character of the area, the quality of its landscape and the natural and historic environment;
  • Safeguard existing local facilities and expand the range of local facilities; and
  • Improve accessibility to facilities in nearby centres outside the North of the Plan area and the recreational opportunities available in the South Downs National Park


[12] Other mechanisms for delivering community led housing includes co-operatives, co-housing, alms-houses and community steering group with Registered Provider Partnership

[13] The HEDNA considers needs for the period 2016-2036. The figures set out in the text above are pro-rata for the period 2016-2035 from that provided in Table 93 in the HEDNA.

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