Local Plan Review: Preferred Approach 2016-2035

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(8) Glossary

Affordable Housing: Housing provided to eligible households whose needs are not met by the market. Eligibility is determined with regard to local incomes and local house prices. Affordable housing should include provisions to remain at an affordable price for future eligible households or for the subsidy to be recycled for alternative affordable housing provision:

  • Social rented housing: owned by local authorities and private registered providers (as defined in Section 80 of the Housing and Regeneration Act 2008), for which guideline target rents are determined through the national rent regime. It may also be owned by other persons and provided under equivalent rental arrangements to the above, as agreed with the local authority or with the Homes and Communities Agency.
  • Affordable rented housing: let by local authorities or private registered providers of social housing to households who are eligible for social rented housing. Affordable Rent is subject to rent controls that require a rent of no more than 80% of the local market rent (including service charges, where applicable).
  • Intermediate housing: homes for sale and rent provided at a cost above social rent, but below market levels subject to the criteria in the Affordable Housing definition above. These can include shared equity (shared ownership and equity loans), other low cost homes for sale and intermediate rent.

Homes that do not meet the above definition of affordable housing, such as "low cost market" housing, may not be considered as affordable housing for planning purposes.

Amenity: Positive elements that contribute to the overall character or enjoyment of an area. For example, open land, trees, historic buildings and the inter-relationship between them, or less tangible factors such as tranquillity.

Amenity space: External amenity space comprising for example: public and private gardens, roof terraces and balconies.

Ancient woodland: An area that has been wooded continuously since at least 1600 AD.

Appropriate Assessment: An assessment of the potential effects of a proposed plan on one or more European Special Areas of Conservation. The 'assessment' proper is a statement which says whether the plan does, or does not; affect the integrity of a European site.

Authority's Monitoring Report (AMR): This enables the local authority to assess the extent that the policies and proposals set out in the Local Plan are being achieved. The AMR allows the local planning authority to identify when a review of policies or proposals will be necessary.

Approved body: Defined in S106 agreements as being one of the following - 1. a Registered Provider being one of the Council's preferred partners; or 2. such other Registered Provider, acceptable to the Council (acting reasonably) in accordance with the Council's Supplementary Planning Guidance; or 3. such other body specialising in the delivery of Affordable Housing as the Council shall approve in writing.

Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB): Areas of high scenic quality that have statutory protection in order to conserve and enhance the natural beauty of their landscapes. AONB landscapes range from rugged coastline to water meadows to gentle lowland and upland moors. Natural England has a statutory power to designate land as AONB under the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000. Chichester Harbour AONB is located within the Local Plan Area.

Article 4 Direction: A special planning regulation adopted by a Local Planning Authority to provide additional powers of planning control in a particular location. It operates by removing "Permitted Development" rights over certain specified classes of minor alterations and extensions, such as porches, replacement of windows and doors and painting of the exterior of a building.

Biodiversity: The totality of genes, species, and ecosystems of a region.

Coalescence: The merging or coming together of separate towns or villages to form a single entity.

Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL): A levy allowing local authorities to raise funds from owners or developers of land undertaking new building projects in their area.

Community Facilities: Facilities that provide for the health and well-being, social, educational, spiritual, recreational, leisure and cultural needs of the community.

Comparison shopping: The purchase of items where the shopper compares the price and quality before a purchase is made, e.g. clothes, gift merchandise, electrical goods, and furniture. Generally high street shopping.

Conservation Area: An area of special architectural or historic interest, designated under the Planning (Listed Buildings & Conservation Areas) Act 1990. There is a statutory duty to preserve or enhance the character, appearance, or setting of these areas.

Conservation Area Character Appraisal: An appraisal of the characteristics and features that are important to the character of a particular Conservation Area.

Convenience shopping: Broadly defined as food shopping, drinks, tobacco, newspapers, magazines and confectionery, purchased regularly for relatively immediate consumption. Generally supermarket shopping.

Density (Housing): The number of dwellings per net residential area, normally measured by dwelling per hectare.

Designated Heritage Asset: A World Heritage Site, Scheduled Monument, Listed Building, Protected Wreck Site, Registered Park and Garden, Registered Battlefield or Conservation Area designated under the relevant legislation.

Developer Contributions: Financial and physical contributions necessary and directly related to the needs of a development for infrastructure and community facilities. They are usually secured by the use of a planning obligation.

Development: Defined within the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 (as amended) as "the carrying out of building, engineering, mining or other operation in, on, over or under land, or the making of any material change in the use of any building or other land." Most forms of development require planning permission.

Development Plan: This includes adopted Local Plans, neighbourhood plans, and is defined in Section 38 of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004.

Development Plan Document (DPD): Formal plans that set out policies for a particular geographical area. They are subject to public consultation and a Sustainability Appraisal. They must also be considered at independent examination and obtain Council approval before they can be adopted.

Environment Agency: A national organisation set up with effect from April 1996, assuming the responsibilities for environmental matters previously held by the National Rivers Authority, Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, and the Waste Regulation Authorities.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA): A procedure to be followed for certain types of project to ensure that decisions are made in full knowledge of any likely significant effects on the environment.

Flood Risk Assessment (FRA): An assessment of the likelihood of flooding in a particular area so that development needs and mitigation measures can be carefully considered.

Greenfield: An undeveloped site, especially one being evaluated and considered for commercial development.

Green Infrastructure: A network of multi-functional green space, urban and rural, which is capable of delivering a wide range of environmental and quality of life benefits for local communities.

Gypsies and Travellers: Persons of nomadic habit of life whatever their race or origin, including such persons who on grounds only of their own or their family's or dependants' educational or health needs or old age have ceased to travel temporarily, but excluding members of an organised group of travelling showpeople or circus people travelling together as such. Following an update to DCLG Planning policy for traveller sites (2015), those that have ceased to travel permanently no longer meet the definition for planning purposes.

Habitats Regulation Assessment (HRA): The European Habitats Directive (92/43/EC) requires 'appropriate assessment' of plans and projects that are either alone, or in combination with other plans and projects, likely to have a significant impact on national and international designated sites.

Heritage Asset: A building, monument, site, place, area or landscape identified as having a degree of significance meriting consideration in planning decisions, because of its heritage interest. Heritage asset includes designated heritage assets and assets identified by the local planning authority (including local listing).

Historic Environment Record (HER): an index to the known archaeological sites and finds, historic buildings, designed and historic landscapes, parks and gardens and scheduled monuments.

Historic parks and gardens: A park or garden of special historic value and have been included on the national Register of Parks and Gardens of special interest in England based on an assessment by Historic England.

Horticultural Development Areas (HDA): Locally designated areas for horticulture, the purpose of which is to promote this important sector of agriculture while protecting the environment and amenities of residents.

Infrastructure: The basic physical and organisational structures and facilities (e.g. buildings, roads, and power supplies) necessary for development to take place.

Infrastructure Delivery Plan (IDP): This will set out the current planned and required infrastructure, when it will come forward, who will be leading on each aspect and funding responsibilities.

International, national and locally designated sites of importance for biodiversity: All international sites (Special Areas of Conservation, Special Protection Areas, and Ramsar sites), national sites (Sites of Special Scientific Interest) and locally designated sites including Local Wildlife Sites

Landscape Character Assessment: A background study that identifies the features or combinations of elements that contribute to the character of the landscape. LCA's can make a contribution to planning policies and the allocation of land for development.

Listed Building: A building of special architectural or historic interest designated by Historic England and included on a statutory list. They are graded I, II* or II, with Grade I being the highest.

Local Development Order: An Order made by a local planning authority (under the Town and Country Planning Act 1990) that grants planning permission for a specific development proposal or classes of development.

Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP): A body, designated by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, established for the purpose of creating or improving the conditions for economic growth in an area.

Locally Listed Building: A building or structure of good quality design and with historic features which, whilst not listed by the Secretary of State, the Council deems to be an important part of the District's heritage.

Local Nature Reserve (LNR): Designated under the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 by Local Authorities in consultation with Natural England for their locally important wildlife or geological features.

Local Transport Plan: A five-year plan, which is drawn up by the Transport Authority in association with local authorities and subject to widespread consultation. It includes future investment plans and proposed packages of measures to meet local transport needs.

Masterplan: A document outlining the use of land and the overall approach to the design and layout of a development scheme in order to provide detailed guidance for subsequent planning applications.

Mitigation measures: Measures requested/carried out in order to limit the damage by a particular development or activity.

Mixed use (or mixed development): Provision of a mix of complementary uses, such as residential, community and leisure uses, on a site or within a particular area.

National Nature Reserve (NNR): Designated under the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 or the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 primarily for nature conservation, but can also include sites with special geological or physical features.

National Park: Nationally important precious landscapes whose distinctive character and natural beauty are so outstanding that it is in the nation's interest to safeguard them. Together with Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty they enjoy the highest level of protection through the planning system.

The Environment Act 1995 set out two statutory purposes for National Parks in England and Wales:

1. Conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage

2. Promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the special qualities of National Parks by the Public

National Parks have the duty to seek to foster the economic and social well-being of local communities. Within Chichester District, the South Downs National Park Authority (SDNPA) is the organisation responsible for promoting the purposes of the National Park and the interests of the people who live and work within it.

National Planning Policy Framework: Sets out the Government's planning policies for England and how these are expected to be applied.

National Planning Practice Guidance: revised and updated planning practice guidance.

Neighbourhood Development Order: An Order made by a local planning authority (under the Town and Country Planning Act 1990) through which Parish Councils and neighbourhood forums can grant permission for a specific development proposal or classes of development.

Neighbourhood plans: A plan prepared by a Parish Council or Neighbourhood Forum for a particular neighbourhood area (made under the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004).

Noise sensitive properties: these include all residential properties, educational establishments, hospitals, hotels, hostels, concert halls and theatres.

Pitch/Plot: a pitch on a 'gypsy and traveller' site and 'plot' on a 'travelling showpeople' site (often called a 'yard'). This terminology differentiates between residential pitches for 'gypsies and travellers' and mixed-use plots for 'travelling showpeople', which may need to incorporate space to be split for the storage of equipment.

Planning obligation: A legally enforceable obligation entered into under S106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 to mitigate the impacts of a development proposal.

Previously developed land: Land which is or was occupied by a permanent structure, including the curtilage of the developed land and any associated fixed surface infrastructure. This excludes: land that is or has been occupied by agricultural or forestry buildings; land that has been developed for minerals extraction or waste disposal by landfill purposes where provision for restoration has been made through development control procedures; land in built-up areas such as private residential gardens, parks, recreation grounds and allotments; and land that was previously-developed but where the remains of the permanent structure or fixed surface structure have blended into the landscape in the process of time.

Priority habitats and species: Species and Habitats of Principle Importance included in the England Biodiversity List published by the Secretary of State under section 41 of the Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act 2006..

Ramsar sites: Wetlands of international importance, designated under the 1971 Ramsar Convention.

Real Time Passenger Information: An electronic passenger information display system which provides updated information about current bus or train services (e.g. expected arrival and departure times, and information about the nature and causes of disruptions).

Renewable and low carbon energy: Renewable energy covers energy flows that occur naturally and repeatedly in the environment - from the wind, the fall of water, the movement of the oceans, from the sun and also from biomass and deep geothermal heat. Low carbon technologies help reduce emissions (compared to conventional use of fossil fuels).

Rural exception sites: Small sites used for affordable housing in perpetuity where sites would not normally be used for housing. Sites seek to address the needs of the local community by accommodating households who are either current residents or have an existing family or employment connection. Small numbers of market homes may be allowed at the local authority's discretion, for example where essential to enable the delivery of affordable units without grant funding.

S106: See planning obligations

Scheduled Monument: A nationally important archaeological site included in the Schedule of Ancient Monuments maintained by the Secretary of State under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.

Sequential Test: A planning principle that seeks to identify, allocate or develop certain types or locations of land before others. For example, brownfield land before greenfield sites, town centres before out of centre and sites at less risk of flooding before others.

Settlement boundary: These are defined around settlements and their purpose is to prevent settlements from sprawling. Generally development proposals will be considered more favourably within the Built-Up Areas.

Site of Nature Conservation Importance (SNCI): A non-statutory designation made by West Sussex County Council. Their special characteristics mean they are high priority sites and their maintenance is important.

Site of Special Scientific Interest: Sites designated by Natural England under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.

Special Area of Conservation: Areas given special protection under the European Union's Habitats Directive, which is transposed into UK law by the Habitats and Conservation of Species Regulations 2010.

Special Protection Areas: Areas which have been identified as being of international importance for the breeding, feeding, wintering or the migration of rare and vulnerable species of birds found within European Union countries. They are European designated sites, classified under the Birds Directive.

Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): A procedure (set out in the Environmental Assessment of Plans and Programmes Regulations 2004) which requires the formal environmental assessment of certain plans and programmes which are likely to have significant effects on the environment.

Supplementary Planning Documents (SPD): Documents which add further detail to the policies in the Local Plan. They can be used to provide further guidance for development on specific sites, or on particular issues, such as design. SPDs are capable of being a material consideration in planning decisions but are not part of the development plan.

Sustainability Appraisal (SA): A tool for appraising policies to ensure that they reflect sustainable development objectives (i.e. economic, social and environmental factors). It incorporates Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). An SA is required under the 2004 Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act to be carried out on all DPDs and certain SPDs.

Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS): systems designed to mimic the natural drainage of a site in order to control the quantity of run-off; and to enhance the nature conservation, landscape and amenity value of the site and its surroundings. These typically include swales, attenuation ponds, wetlands, and permeable surfaces.

Transit sites: Sites made available for Gypsies and Travellers who need to temporarily stop. Generally used by families who have been evicted from their previous accommodation and are looking for a new place to live. There are limits on how long families can stay on these sites which is normally between 28 days and 3 months.

Travelling Showpeople: Members of a group organised for the purposes of holding fairs, circuses or shows (whether or not travelling together as such). This includes such persons who on the grounds of their own or their family's or dependants' more localised pattern of trading, educational or health needs or old age have ceased to travel temporarily or permanently but excludes Gypsies and Travellers.

Use Classes Order (UCO): This is supplementary legislation which specifies a number of broad "classes of use"; changes of use can be made between different uses within the same class without the need for planning permission. In some circumstances it is possible to change between classes without applying for planning permission as specified by the General Permitted Development Order.

Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW): also known as sewage treatment works where contaminants are removed from wastewater and sewage.

Water Framework Directive (WFD): This European Directive, together with emerging River Basin Management Plans, looks at integrated management of water resources, taking account of abstraction, water quality and flooding.

Windfall sites: Sites which have not been specifically identified as available in the Local Plan process. They normally comprise previously-developed sites that have unexpectedly become available.

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