Chichester Local Plan 2021 - 2039: Proposed Submission
Chapter 8: Transport and Accessibility
8.1. Transport is a key issue for the plan area. The Portsmouth-Brighton rail corridor and the A27, part of the strategic road network, both run east-west through the southern part of Chichester District. These strategic routes are supported by a network of local roads as well as bus, cycle and pedestrian routes which enable people to move around by both car and alternative modes of transport.
8.2. The West Sussex Transport Plan (2022-2036) provides strategic direction for future investment in highways and transport infrastructure within the plan area, focusing on the objectives of a prosperous, healthy, protected and connected West Sussex. There are 17 objectives which aim to deliver the vision, these include sustainable economic prosperity; accommodating planned development and demographic change; tackling climate change; avoiding and minimising the impact on the environment; enhancing biodiversity; reducing the need to travel by car; improving road and bus network efficiency; improving rail services and bus network coverage and extending and improving active travel facilities. The Transport Plan includes five thematic transport strategies and area transport strategies. The area transport strategy for Chichester identifies a number of key issues in the plan area and aims to address these. The strategy aims to improve the performance of the A27 through junction improvements at Chichester; improve the A259 between Chichester and Bognor Regis including improved active travel and shared transport infrastructure; facilitate the shift to electric vehicles; work with partners to improve air quality; make active travel realistic and attractive for short distance journeys within and between existing communities and towns.
8.3. Road congestion is a major concern for residents and businesses in the plan area; in particular, congestion around the junctions of the A27 Chichester by-pass which in turn, leads to congestion on the local road network as drivers seek alternative routes, increasing traffic speed and flow on those alternative routes.
8.4. The Local Plan Transport Study shows that in many parts of the plan area, the road network is operating at or close to designed capacity. At a strategic level, mitigation is required to increase capacity on the A27 and manage additional demands on the highway network. This could be delivered through junction improvements and sustainable transport infrastructure as well as through non-physical measures such as travel planning to encourage sustainable travel choices. The cost of the junction improvements is estimated at approximately £ 90 – 135 million and cannot be met through developer contributions alone.
8.5. In 2021, National Highways confirmed that the A27 Chichester By-Pass major improvement scheme is included in the Road Investment Strategy Pipeline for the period 2025-2030 (RIS3). However, at this stage, funding is not guaranteed and its inclusion or otherwise in the final RIS3 programme will be confirmed at a later date and is dependent on National Highways option development work. Therefore, the council will continue to work with National Highways and WSCC as the Highway Authorities, to progress interim measures which will enable development to take place while a long-term strategic solution is progressed.
8.6. In the first instance, development will be directed to the most sustainable locations where the need to travel is reduced or there are suitable alternatives to the car. Development will also be phased to align with future transport improvements planned to support development over the plan period.
8.7. In order to ensure delivery of transport mitigation required to support the Local Plan, the Council will work closely with National Highways, West Sussex County Council Highways and relevant landowners. Where appropriate, to facilitate the delivery of necessary highway and sustainable transport mitigation, the council in partnership with National Highways and WSCC, will consider the use of compulsory powers.
8.8. Increasing the capacity of the road network is key to supporting growth in the Local Plan. However, there is also a need to reduce demand for road transport to achieve net zero in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 as highlighted in the council's Climate Emergency Action Plan and Strategic Objective 1. In aiming to achieve the ambitions of the action plan, all development is expected to demonstrate how it will support four key objectives to create an integrated transport network which will alleviate pressure on the road network, improve highway safety, encourage sustainable travel behaviours and help reduce transport related impact on air quality, by:
- Avoiding or reducing the need to travel by car;
- Enabling access to sustainable means of travel, including public transport, walking and cycling;
- Managing travel demand; and
- Mitigating the impacts of travel by car.
8.9. These three objectives are central to the aims of Policies T1 and T2, which set out the strategic transport requirements for the Local Plan and more detailed development management criteria which will be applied when considering the transport impacts of proposals for new development.
8.10. The district council has undertaken several transport studies of both the proposed development sites and strategic housing numbers set out in this Plan, and also a greater quantum of development, to understand the impacts on the highway network in the plan area and surrounding area. The studies have identified that a number of potential highway improvements will be required to mitigate the impact of the development now planned in this Local Plan, particularly in relation to junction improvements on the A27 Chichester Bypass, as set out above. There will also likely be a need to supplement physical highway improvements with sustainable transport initiatives. The council has worked with National Highways and the county council to identify a coordinated and deliverable package of transport measures and principles on which to identify further mitigation proposals, that will be considered through the 'monitor and manage' approach to mitigate projected traffic impacts resulting from new housing and other development over the Plan period.
8.11. The schemes that are recommended to be provided within the Local Plan period, via developer contributions arising from housing growth, subject to the ongoing monitor and manage processes and funding are:
A27 junction improvements:
8.12. This is a shift away from the previous approach of 'predict and provide' which forecasts the predicted growth in traffic and provides mitigation based on the forecast growth. The 'monitor and manage' approach is based on identifying a package of potential highway improvements (including enhanced walking, cycling and public transport) which alongside schemes identified through the development management process, may be implemented following a monitoring process that will monitor the actual demand on the network and the requirement for the schemes. The reason for this approach is that the full cost of the A27 junction improvements cannot be funded through contributions from new development alone and no additional funding sources have been identified. Fishbourne Roundabout with the Terminus Road Link is estimated at between £9.5 and £12.9 million, and Bognor Road Roundabout with the Vinnetrow Road Link is estimated at between £19.4 and £30.4 million.
8.13. To oversee the delivery of the monitor and manage process a Traffic and Infrastructure Management Group (TIMG) will be set up, consisting of representatives from Chichester District Council, West Sussex County Council and National Highways.
8.14. Whilst is it recognised that based on the current forecasting, junction improvements are also required at Stockbridge Roundabout and Whyke Roundabout, the provisional mitigation schemes (converting the roundabouts to signalised crossroads) would ban right turn movements from the A27 to Chichester and the Manhood Peninsula. This would then trigger the requirement for the Stockbridge Link Road mitigation scheme, in order to replace right turn movements onto the Manhood Peninsula. This package of works would be between £57.23 and £82.79 million to deliver in full and would not be capable of being funded by development contributions alone. There have not been any external sources of funding identified that would be able to deliver the scheme. This, combined with concerns about the deliverability of the Link Road, means that it is unable to be delivered as part of the Local Plan mitigation measures. However, if during the monitor and manage process, it is found that any alternate scheme could remove the need for the restricted movements, then these will be assessed by the TIMG and will inform any further review of the Plan.
8.15. In terms of the Portfield junction, the roundabout has had improvements implemented and there is an opportunity for future mitigation if required. The Oving junction has also been subject to mitigation and designed to support bus priority, therefore there is little scope to further modify this junction.
8.16. These highway improvement schemes alongside a monitor and manage process will replace the schemes previously identified to mitigate the effects of the 2015 Local Plan, other than specific localised schemes identified at the development management stage to mitigate the impact of a specific proposal.
8.17. In terms of public transport, the council will be working with Network Rail, train operators and local stakeholders to facilitate improvements to the accessibility of railway stations. The council also works closely with bus operators to improve their services in and through the plan area.
Policy T1: Transport Infrastructure
Integrated transport measures will be developed to mitigate the impact of planned development on the highways network, improve highway safety and air quality, promote more sustainable travel patterns and encourage increased use of sustainable modes of travel, such as public transport, cycling and walking.
The council will work with National Highways, West Sussex County Council, other transport and service providers (including through the Traffic and Infrastructure Management Group) and developers to provide a better integrated transport network and to improve accessibility to key services and facilities. All development is expected to demonstrate how it will support four key objectives to create an integrated transport network which will alleviate pressure on the road network, improve highway safety, encourage sustainable travel behaviours and help improve air quality, by:
- Avoiding or reducing the need to travel by car;
- Enabling access to sustainable means of travel, including public transport, walking and cycling;
- Managing travel demand; and
- Mitigating the impacts of travel by car.
All parties, including applicants, are expected to support these objectives by:
- Ensuring that new development is well located and designed to avoid or minimise the need for travel, encourages the use of sustainable modes of travel as an alternative to the private car and provides or contributes towards new or improved transport infrastructure;
- Working with relevant providers to improve accessibility to key services and facilities and to ensure that new facilities are easily accessible by sustainable modes of travel;
- Targeting investment to provide local travel options as an alternative to the car, focusing on the delivery of improved integrated bus and train services, and improved pedestrian and cycling networks, including the public rights of way network, based on the routes and projects identified in the Local Transport Plan, Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plan (LCWIP) and the Infrastructure Delivery Plan;
- Planning to achieve the timely delivery of transport infrastructure on the A27 and elsewhere on the network, needed to support new housing, employment and other development identified in this plan;
- Phasing the delivery of new development to align with the provision of new transport infrastructure and the outcomes of monitoring travel demand. It may also be necessary to proactively phase development to take into account the monitoring and effectiveness of travel plans to encourage sustainable travel behaviour;
- Using demand management measures, such as travel plans, to manage travel demand and minimise the need for new or improved transport infrastructure as part of the monitor and manage process.
- Delivering a coordinated package of infrastructure improvements to junctions on the A27 Chichester Bypass along with other small-scale junction improvements within the city and elsewhere, as identified through the monitor and manage process. These will increase road capacity, reduce traffic congestion, improve safety and air quality, and improve access to Chichester city from surrounding areas.
Opportunities to secure funding to implement this package of improvements (in relation to criterion 7) will be maximised by working proactively with government agencies including National Highways and Homes England, other public sector organisations and private investors. Developer contributions from new development will also be sought from all new housing development that is not yet subject to planning permission, in accordance with the per dwelling contribution as set out in paragraphs 8.20 to 8.21.
The Community Infrastructure Levy may be used to contribute towards the cost of improvements to the local transport network. New development may also be required to deliver or contribute towards specific transport improvements directly related to the development.
The following routes are safeguarded (as shown in the Transport Study 2023) to ensure that the A27 improvements can be delivered, unless it can be demonstrated that they are no longer required:
- A259 Cathedral Way/ Terminus Road Link
- A259 Bognor Road/ Vinnetrow Road Link
8.18. Policy T1 Transport Infrastructure makes provision for a coordinated package of improvements to junctions on the A27 Chichester Bypass that will increase road capacity, reduce traffic congestion and improve safety.
8.19. The Transport Study (2023)identified an indicative package of measures for the Fishbourne Roundabout costing between £9,520,000 and £12,900,000 and the Bognor Road Roundabout costing between £19,390,000 and £30,420,000.
8.20. This sum will be met from financial contributions provided by the outstanding housing developments proposed in the Local Plan as set out below:
A27 Mitigation contributions
Strategic development locations carried forward from 2015 Local Plan (without planning permission as at November 2022)
- West of Chichester SDL – Phase 2 = £1,803 per dwelling
- Tangmere SDL = £5,914 per dwelling
All other housing development where there is a net increase in dwelling numbers, on the basis of the formula below, to be applied at the time of granting any permission:
|Estimated cost of A27 works to Fishbourne Roundabout and Bognor Road Roundabout||Less contributions secured through committed (permitted) development||Divided by remaining supply to be permitted in southern Plan Area||Equals contribution per dwelling (net increase)|
8.21. A worked example of the contribution to be calculated for 'all other housing development' is provided below:
Estimated cost of works to Fishbourne Roundabout and Bognor Road Roundabout = £27,442,593 (higher cost of works £43,320,000 – receipts from committed development £15,877,407)
Supply of new dwellings in the south of the plan area up to 2039 = 3,551 dwellings
Per dwelling contribution = £27,442,593/ 3,551 = £7,728
8.22. The ‘estimated cost of A27 works to Fishbourne Roundabout and Bognor Road Roundabout’ will be based upon the most up to date estimate (through the Monitor and Manage process) at the time of granting any permission, to take into account adjustment for inflation and any other material changes to the cost of those works. Contributions secured will be used either towards the identified junction infrastructure improvements, and/or other highway capacity improvements identified through the Monitor and Manage process.
Transport and development
8.23. Whilst new development may provide opportunities to deliver improvements to transport and accessibility, it is necessary to consider the impact of any new development upon: the existing transport network; highway safety; and current provision for movement for all modes of transport. Policy T2 Transport and Development sets out the requirements for new development to demonstrate how it will contribute to a safe, sustainable, connected and accessible transport network, through meeting the criteria and through the submission of the relevant supporting information (e.g. Transport Assessment/ Statement).
Policy T2 Transport and Development
- Proposals for new development will be required to contribute towards a safe, sustainable, connected and accessible transport network by addressing the following criteria:
- Ensure that major development is designed to avoid and/or reduce the need to travel by car and incorporates measures where possible, that decrease traffic speed and flows;
- Maximise opportunities for sustainable travel connecting to either the existing network or providing new infrastructure or public transport services, to reduce reliance on the private car and work towards achieving net zero in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050;
- Promote active travel by incorporating safe and coherent pedestrian and cycle routes within major development sites and ensure connectivity to existing cycle routes and relevant planned cycle routes located within proximity to the site, to enable access to local services by foot and bicycle;
- Ensure major development is located to enable the use of public transport to access local services and facilities including employment, leisure and education facilities;
- Provide safe access to the highway for all users;
- Ensure that the layout and design of the site provides sufficient space for all vehicles to manoeuvre without compromising the safety of pedestrians and cyclists or the ability to provide an appropriate level of landscaping across the site
- Provide parking in accordance with Policy T4;
- Where possible, connect to existing car sharing clubs in accessible locations and/or depending on the scale of the proposed development, provide new car sharing clubs;
- Ensure that where new accessing or servicing is required in connection with commercial premises, where possible, it is located to the rear of premises and does not result in obstructions on the highway or on pavements while loading/unloading takes place;
- Provide site-specific transport mitigation measures outlined in the Local Plan transport mitigation plan, Local Plan site allocation policies or neighbourhood plan policies.
- 2. Proposals for development which are likely to result in significant transport impacts must be supported by a Transport Assessment and Travel Plan. Transport Statements should be provided for development proposals that generate significant transport movements at their highway access junctions but fall below the threshold for a full Transport Assessment. These should be used to fully demonstrate how the criteria in 1a) to j) have been addressed including by making reference, where appropriate, to the Local Transport Plan, the Infrastructure Delivery Plan and the LCWIP.
- Travel plans should encourage sustainable travel choices using measures such as the provision of car sharing clubs in accessible locations, easy-to-use journey planning tools, skills training and promotional activities. Travel plans will be prepared as a means of coordinating these measures and validation of their effectiveness will be required in addition to identifying further necessary measures. Measures for implementing and monitoring travel plans must, as a minimum, include;
- mechanism/s to monitor the effectiveness of measures within the Travel Plan in reducing the demand on road network from the development;
- triggers for additional demand reduction measures if monitoring shows that they are required; and
- Identification of suitable and achievable additional measures to increase modal shift toward more trips from the development being made by way of sustainable alternatives, should monitoring of the travel plan demonstrate this is necessary.
- Where the transport impacts of a development are likely to have a significant adverse effect on local air quality, including AQMAs/European/internationally important sites, proposals must be accompanied by an Air Quality Assessment. Where adverse effects are identified, appropriate measures to prevent or mitigate the impacts on designated sites either alone or in combination, must be identified.
Active Travel - Walking and Cycling
8.24. The Local Plan supports sustainable travel and has an important role in ensuring improvements are made to walking and cycling infrastructure. Walking and cycling, as forms of active travel, can be part of healthier lifestyles as well as reducing carbon emissions and improving air quality, whilst also reducing the demands on public transport and road networks.
8.25. The NPPF requires the promotion of walking and cycling as well as prioritising pedestrian and cycle movements in development management decisions. Planning policies should also provide for high-quality walking and cycling networks and supporting facilities, drawing on Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plans (LCWIP).
8.26. National government policy for walking and cycling also includes the Gear Change Strategy, which sets out the actions required by all levels of government to put cycling and walking at the heart of decision-making. Cycle infrastructure design guidance is contained in Local Transport Note 1/20, the West Sussex Cycling Design Guide and referred to in the Chichester City Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plan (LCWIP) adopted by the council on 14 April 2021. The LCWIP aims to deliver a network of walking and cycling routes within Chichester city whilst the West Sussex Transport Plan 2022-2036, the West Sussex County Council Walking and Cycling Strategy 2016-2026 and the Chichester Area Sustainable Transport Package identify a number of cycling and walking schemes promoted for improvements throughout the Local Plan area.
8.27. New development will support local authority planned walking and cycling improvements by enabling or contributing towards identified schemes. Development proposals that prioritise pedestrians and cyclists can help to facilitate modal shift away from private car use and ensure new development is well connected to key facilities and locations. To achieve a high-quality public realm for the plan area, walking and cycling routes should incorporate segregation, as well as be wide enough to maximise safety and accessibility.
Policy T3 Active Travel - Walking and Cycling Provision
Development proposals will promote sustainable transport and prioritise walking and cycling as forms of active travel. In order to promote walking and cycling and ensure a safe and accessible environment for cyclists and pedestrians, new development will be permitted which:
- Delivers, enables, contributes towards and does not prejudice improvements for high quality, safe, accessible, inclusive, well-lit and connected cycle and walking routes across the Local Plan area ensuring integration with the wider networks, including the safeguarding delivery of current and planned cycle and walking routes as identified in the Chichester City Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plan, the West Sussex Transport Plan 2022-2036, the West Sussex Walking and Cycling Strategy 2016-2026 and the Chichester Area Sustainable Transport Package (including future updates/LCWIPs);
- Delivers, enables and contributes towards achieving a high-quality and inclusive public realm through the provision of cycling and walking infrastructure including seating, signage and landscaping to enhance the pedestrian and cycling environment;
- Provides for accessible, conveniently located, secure cycle parking and storage facilities in both private and publicly accessible locations in accordance with Policy T4.
8.28. Parking provision should be sufficient to accommodate parking demand while maximising the potential for sustainable travel, minimising adverse effects on road safety and avoiding increased demand for on-street parking. Expected levels of parking demand in residential developments should be determined, where appropriate, taking account of; location (parking behaviour zone), dwelling size (rooms), parking provision (allocated or unallocated), and arrangements for control or enforcement. Calculation of expected levels of parking demand should normally be based on local or comparable data taking account of forecast changes in demand for the plan period.
8.29. EV charging infrastructure must be designed into all new residential and commercial developments as part of the overall provision of parking facilities in accordance with the Building Regulations 2010 Infrastructure for the charging of electric vehicles: Approved Document S 2021 edition and any subsequent guidance and codes of practice for electric vehicle charging.
8.30. In September 2020, West Sussex County Council (WSCC) published Guidance on Parking at New Developments which sets out standards for vehicle and cycle parking provision including the percentage of spaces which are expected to provide for disabled persons. Further guidance for cycle parking is set out in the West Sussex Cycling Design Guide. Parking provision in new developments should be informed by the standards contained in the WSCC guidance or any subsequent standards adopted by this council or set out in made Neighbourhood Plans.
8.31. Calculation of demand for parking at non-residential developments should be based on the land-use; the trip rate associated with the development (including base and forecast mode share); types of vehicles used; and the user group of staff/visitors of the site (including shift patterns).
8.32. If parking could reasonably be expected to take place in existing streets, then it will be necessary to demonstrate through a parking capacity survey that there is sufficient capacity to accommodate the expected demand.
8.33. Applicants are advised to read the WSCC Guidance on Parking at New Developments in full to ensure all requirements are addressed. The Chichester District Car Park Strategy also continues to play a role in managing growth in car use.
Policy T4 Parking Provision
Planning permission will be granted where it can be demonstrated that the proposal provides adequate parking provision as well as safe and secure cycle parking informed by the standards set out in the West Sussex Parking Standards Guidance (2020) or any subsequent standards adopted by Chichester District Council or West Sussex County Council.
 As defined in the West Sussex County Council published guidance on parking at new developments.